Britain's Other War on Terror: Resisting the Animal Avengers
Part 2: 'Your Life Is in Danger'
Repeated bomb scares and the resulting evacuations are the least of HLS's problems. Employees have been secretly photographed and their photos published on the Internet. Some have found explosives under their cars. CEO Brian Cass, now 60, was assaulted and beaten in front of his house by three attackers using tear gas and clubs.
Animl rights activists protest outside a court hearing against SHAC members in the US. The group is also active in the United Kingdom.
"Your life is in danger whenever you go to your car after working in the torture chamber." These were the words that activist Julia Didrikson, 43, wrote in one of her mass e-mails to HLS employees. In another missive, she threatened: "Don't even think that your children are safe, if you have any. It doesn't take us long to find out where they go to school and where they live." In late September, Didrikson was sentenced to five months in prison for making the threats. When she was taken into custody she insisted: "But I'm just a harmless animal lover."
Donald Currie, a 41-year-old, unemployed psychiatric nurse turned bomb builder, was sentenced to 12 years in prison. It was only by accident that he didn't kill anyone. Mark Taylor, 39, began a four-year prison sentence in March. As a member of SHAC, Taylor was responsible for occupying the offices of companies linked to HLS. In a typical campaign, he and a dozen other activists, all wearing skull masks, would burst into an office and shout "murderers" at the employees. Some of the companies he and his fellow activists raided were so intimidated that they promptly cut off all ties to Huntingdon.
Radical animal rights activists have also targeted thousands of ordinary shareholders of pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline. In letters to the shareholders, the activists threatened that if they did not sell their shares they would find their names and addresses plastered all over the Internet.
In many British cities, police officers now take action against illegal stands animal rights activists have set up in pedestrian zones. Using horrifying photographs, many of them very old, the unlicensed activists collect money and signatures for petitions to combat animal experiments.
The stands are apparently lucrative. According to the police, some have taken in as much as 115,000 a year. But investigators say that the petitions usually end up in the trash, while the money pays for criminal activities like SHAC's acts of sabotage.
In May, in a campaign dubbed "Operation Achilles," 700 police officers raided dozens of addresses in Great Britain, Belgium and the Netherlands, arresting 32 people aged 19 to 68. Nine were charged with extortion or other crimes. Among them were many senior members of the animal rights movement, including Greg Avery, the co-founder of SHAC. Avery, who goes on trial next summer, will likely be sentenced to a lengthy prison term.
As a result of the increased pressure, the number of violent attacks has declined drastically this year, but the movement is by no means dead. Although Huntingdon still keeps the names of its customers a closely guarded secret, the news leaked out that Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis allegedly uses HLS's services.
'Democracy Is in Danger'
The response came in late August, when a group calling itself the Animal Rights Militia (ARM) claimed that it had put poison in hundreds of tubes of "Savlon," an antiseptic ointment made by Novartis. Many parents use the ointment to treat their children's minor cuts and scrapes. Thousands of tubes were taken off retail shelves. Although none of the alleged poison was found, even many animal lovers showed little sympathy for a group that had been willing to threaten harm to children.
The ARM is no stranger to publicity stunts that have backfired. In October 2004, ARM activists robbed the grave of Gladys Hammond, 83, and kidnapped the remains of her body. She had been dead eight years. Their goal was to blackmail Hammond's son-in-law, Christopher Hall, and force him to give up his involvement in a business that raised guinea pigs for Huntingdon's laboratories. After being the target of animal rights campaigns for years, Hall finally gave in to their demands.
When the body was finally found a year and a half later, in May 2006, Hall re-buried his mother-in-law. Four arrests were made in the case, and three of those arrested had already been convicted of similar prior offences. They were sentenced to prison terms ranging from four to 12 years.
Tipu Aziz is a neurosurgeon and Parkinson's researcher at Oxford. He is one of little more than a handful of British scientists who, despite what he calls "a climate of fear," have spoken openly for years about the need for animal experiments.
Aziz's outspokenness has resulted in his name being included on Internet death lists, and he pays careful attention whenever he receives packages with unknown return addresses. But he insists that he will not allow himself to be muzzled and that he has nothing be ashamed of. Besides, he adds, democracy itself is in jeopardy when people no longer dare to talk about their convictions.
Aziz will soon move into a small office in Oxford's big new laboratory on South Parks Road. Once there he will use specific substances to artificially induce severe Parkinson's disease in "two to four" macaques each year. He will then attempt to alleviate the symptoms through the use of electrodes implanted in their brains. The monkeys will survive the experiments, but in the end they will be killed, as the law requires. Aziz doesn't see this as a problem.
With similar experiments conducted in about 30 animals to date, Aziz has played a key role in the development of a brain pacemaker for Parkinson's patients. More than 40,000 people benefit from the results of his research today, often in dramatic ways. Before having the pacemaker implanted, many Parkinson's patients trembled so severely that they were barely able to stand up or walk. When the electrodes were implanted in their brains, the tremors stopped and they were able to live almost normal lives.
Aziz was dumbfounded. "A nurse at her age," says Aziz, "was around when massive numbers of children were dying of infectious diseases." Without animal experiments as the core of medical research, this would still be the case today.
"The British have a grotesque relationship to animals," says Aziz, who was born in what is today Bangladesh. "They see them as human-like beings that feel and think the way they do." Which make is all the odder that they never became a nation of vegetarians.
Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan
- Part 1: Resisting the Animal Avengers
- Part 2: 'Your Life Is in Danger'
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2007
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH