The Plight of the Roma: Europe's Unwanted People
Part 2: 'Birth Control For Gypsies'
The village is governed by the far-right Jobbik party which demands "birth control for gypsies" and is linked to one of the neo-Nazi militia groups that terrorized the Roma in Gyöngyöspata. Police demand fines when pedestrians walk on the street rather than the sidewalk. In the school in Gyöngyöspata, Roma children were reportedly taught on a separate floor.
Given such treatment, it's a miracle that not more Roma try to leave their home country. But they also face discrimination in richer countries like Germany. They frequently suffer verbal abuse and are assaulted, and they don't have equal prospects in the labor market, says Markus End, a Berlin-based political scientist. Racism against Sinti and Roma is "an everyday occurrence in Germany," he says.
There has been violence against Roma in Germany too. Rudolf H., a Sinto from Klingenhain, a village in Saxony, was called a "wog chieftain" and his wife Claudia a "gypsy slut." The Sinti family endured verbal abuse for six years. Their children were threatened at school and police once had to protect them from neo-Nazis on their way home from school.
Their house was broken into several times by people who smashed the furniture and sliced the sofa. In autumn 2009, a brick was hurled through their window with a note attached to it saying: "Beat it, you wogs." At Christmas their house was set on fire. That's when the family gave up and moved away.
But sentiment towards Roma is even more hostile in other wealthy EU countries. In Italy, the government is trying to rehouse Roma in segregated estates made of containers.
Elviz Isola lives in such a camp with his mother and many siblings. Before that they lived in "Casolino 900,"one of Europe's biggest slums which was razed by bulldozers overnight. Then the government rehoused them in Salone. Elviz waits at the gate which is secured with barbed wire. There's a surveillance camera next to it. Salone is on the outside of the ring highway surrounding Rome. It's a godforsaken place, reachable only by a narrow path. Behind the gate stands a dreary encampment of corrugated iron containers each measuring three by seven meters, standing in neat rows, with windows that resemble arrow slits.
Rats, Stray Dogs and Rotting Mattresses
Some 500 families live here, in many cases more than six or seven people in just 30 square meters. Rats scuttle along the paths between the containers, stray dogs roam and the place is filled with rotting old sofas and mattresses the Romans secretly dump here at weekends. But Salone is supposed to be a model of a city-financed, "fully equipped" housing estate for the minority -- at least, that's how the Italian government sees it.
In fact, Salone is more a ghetto than a village, and it deprives young men like Elviz of the chance to belong to the normal Italy. It takes three or four hours to get to the center of Rome where they might get a job or job training. "Who's going to take me on as a stableman, mechanic or kitchen helper with that length of commute, with this stamp as 'zingaro' that I carry on my forehead?" says Elviz. "They win elections," says Salome, "by sticking Roma people in a prison like Salone."
Last summer the vice president of the Genoa city council said: "Jellyfish are like gypsies: useless and always an annoyance." According to an Amnesty International report, politicians regard the presence of Roma people as "comparable to a natural disaster."
There was a time, more than four years ago, when Elviz Isola thought things might change, Activists lodged a complaint with the EU against the police for taking fingerprints off underage Roma. Elviz was among the plaintiffs, the ruling was in his favor and he thought everything would be OK. But today, he's resigned. "We Roma didn't take part in any war, we're a peaceful people. To defend ourselves now, to rise up, what use would that be?"
Elviz and his friends prefer rhyming rap songs at the table in their container and writing a blog about their lives as gypsies. Recently, they even have a bit more money. The new pope is drawing more pilgrims to the city and the women are returning home from begging with more money in their pockets. The fact that Pope Francis speaks often of poverty and of visiting society's fringes fills Elviz with hope. "He should come," Elviz says. "You can't get anymore fringe than here in our camp, nowhere in Europe."
France too is hardly squeamish when dealing with Roma. Camps made of mobile homes and provisional shacks, established in many places by Roma from Romania and Bulgaria, are simply bulldozed away. The method began under conservative President Nicolas Sarkozy, and has continued under his Socialist successor, François Hollande.
It isn't just the right-wing Front National that believes the majority of Roma are incapable of integrating. Socialist Interior Minister Manuel Valls agrees. Their way of life is "extremely different," he says. He immediately received a threat of sanctions from the office of European Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding making in clear that EU rights guaranteeing personal freedom of movement apply to Roma as well. Her office noted that the EU would do everything in its power to defend these rights.
During a visit in Brussels, Reding sits in her office and sighs. "You can't win with this issue," she says. Just how little EU member states care about the Roma became clear to her when she travelled in 2010 to the Roma summit in the Spanish city of Córdoba. "Just three ministers came," she said. Germany's then-Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière likewise showed little interest and sent a representative.
'No Need for a Special Roma Strategy'
After the summit, Reding demanded that all EU member states present a strategy for the integration of Roma. The response from Germany was telling: In 2011, a several-page-long document arrived from Berlin which admitted that there were difficulties when it came to integrating immigrants. But, it went on, "there is no need for a special Roma strategy."
In the spring of 2013, Reding launched a round table for the discussion of Roma issues. It was designed to provide an opportunity to aid organizations and Roma representatives to give voice to their concerns and problems. The resulting list went from poverty to open discrimination to difficulties in accessing education and healthcare systems.
The EU, often so powerful, has little influence when it comes to Roma policy and Reding has few possibilities to impose sanctions. She would write former German Interior Minister Friedrich complaint letters when his rhetoric grew too biting. She has also criticized Italy and even began official proceedings against France when Paris expelled large numbers of Roma.
Reding's voice is filled with frustration when she says "there are two main things that you generally get from member states: either a few well-meant Sunday speeches or populism directed against Roma." But you can't win votes by supporting the Roma. Indeed, member states haven't even made use of all of the 26.5 billion euros made available over the last five years to help integrate Roma.
Damian Draghici could perhaps explain to the justice commissioner why that is the case. The 43-year-old is Roma and is a successful musician. He was a co-composer of the film music for the "Pirates of the Caribbean" series.
Today, Draghici is the chief advisor on Roma issues to the Romanian prime minister. On one afternoon in June, he found himself sitting at a conference table in Bucharest, his Ray-Ban sunglasses pushed up on his forehead. His hair is cut short, he wears a suit and speaks English without an accent. On the table in front of him are water bottles, business cards and two smart phones.
Yes, he says, they have a Roma strategy in Romania, but only because Brussels demanded it. It is just a paper. He sums up the Roma strategy of his government and the efforts from Brussels succinctly: "Based on bullshit," he says.
He says he would be happy to help should there be problems with Roma in Germany. He could help out with projects in the Romanian villages involved as needed, you just have to ask, he insists. When he hears that German parents get 20 times as much from the state for each child than Romanian parents do, he says incredulously: "Bullshit."
He says that in the last 20 years, Roma issues were very last on Romania's list of political agenda. "The Roma are today are in the same condition they were as 150 years ago," he says. Municipalities can only help Roma on a local level, he believes, and not by resolution in Brussels and certainly not by the Romanian parliament. The lawmaking body has but a single Roma representative for the close to two million Roma in the country.
That may be. But almost concurrently, European interior ministers placed new limitations on visa-free entries from Balkan countries such as Serbia and Macedonia. Ex-Interior Minister Friedrich even proposed, shortly before he shifted to the Agricultural Ministry, that travel freedoms be limited for people from Romania and Bulgaria, both of which are full EU members.
Such moves make Roma suspicious that the newest resolution for the improvement of their situation is little more than paper. Draghici might say: Bullshit.
BY JÖRG DIEHL, FIONA EHLERS, ÖZLEM GEZER, MAXIMILIAN POPP and FIDELIUS SCHMIDT
- Part 1: Europe's Unwanted People
- Part 2: 'Birth Control For Gypsies'
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2014
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH
Click on the links below for more information about DER SPIEGEL's history, how to subscribe or purchase the latest issue of the German-language edition in print or digital form or how to obtain rights to reprint SPIEGEL articles.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Everything You Need to Know about DER SPIEGEL
- Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL
- A New Home in HafenCity: SPIEGEL's New Hamburg HQ
- Reprints: How To License SPIEGEL Articles