The End of Tolerance? Anti-Muslim Movement Rattles Germany
Part 2: Imaginations Run Wild
What is so deeply upsetting to many Saxons is difficult to recognize at first glance. According to the official statistics, there are about 100,000 foreigners living in the state, or 2.5 percent of its population -- compared to 13.4 percent in Berlin. State interior ministry figures indicate that the share of Muslims who have the potential to seek to Islamicize the Saxon West is only 0.1 percent. But many of those who take to the streets every week don't believe the official statistics. Instead, they are convinced that a cartel of politicians and "main-stream media" are audaciously misleading the public over the true state of affairs.
At least one of Saxony's great citizens, the author Karl May, exhibited a considerable talent for imagining foreign, threatening worlds. His novels, which have sold millions of copies around the world, are crawling with what he calls Musulmans dazzling infidels with their swords or simply dispatching them straight to hell.
Many Dresden residents also let their imaginations run wild at the Monday protests. One demonstrator says that he doesn't want to see his granddaughters being forced to wear headscarves in the future, while another suggests that Islamists would be better off seeking asylum in wealthy, oil-producing countries. A woman complains that she can't afford to buy a smartphone, but that the refugees can.
Lutz Bachmann has brought them together. The impetus for his movement, he says, was a walk through Dresden's post-Socialist Prager Strasse shopping district. He witnessed a rally by supporters of the Kurdish Workers' Party, or PKK, which opposes the Islamic State militants in Syria and Iraq. His reaction was to start a Facebook group, primarily to oppose arms shipments to the PKK.
It was only a handful of people who showed up for the first demonstration in October. Today Pegida has more than 44,000 Facebook fans. By contrast, the state chapter of Merkel's conservative CDU party, which has been in office for 24 years, has only managed to drum up 661 Facebook fans.
Links to Crime and Hooligans
While Pegida wants to see criminal asylum seekers deported immediately, some of its own activists are known to the police. Movement founder Bachmann is registered with the authorities under the heading "General crime (including violent offences)," and he has a criminal record for offences that include burglary and drug crimes. Another member of the group's middle-class leadership is also registered with authorities under the same category, and a third rally organizer has fraud convictions on his record.
Pegida's connections to the hooligan community are also noteworthy. For instance, the police have identified some of the protestors as members of "Fist of the East," a Dresden hooligan group in the right-wing extremist camp. Members of "Hooligans Elbflorenz (Florence on the Elbe, a nickname for Dresden)," which the Dresden Regional Court has classified as a criminal organization, have also been spotted. Activists with the group have reportedly been in contact with the banned far-right extremist fellowship known as "Skinheads Sächsische Schweiz."
The police estimate that the Pegida marches include about 300 people "associated with the fan community of SG Dynamo Dresden," the city's football club, and describe about 250 of them as "problem fans." Unofficially, the authorities assume that a large portion of this group is "open to right-wing extremist ideas." There are also apparently ties between Pegida and HoGeSa. For instance, police have identified a 42-year-old in Meissen, a city near Dresden, who is seen as an organizer for both protest movements.
Nationalism Dressed Up as Patriotism
A vague feeling of being threatened unites the demonstrators, whether they see themselves as members of the middle-class, conservative nationalists or radical right-wingers. They yearn for isolation and simple answers, which is why almost-forgotten, Nazi-era terms like "Volk" (the people) and "Vaterland" (the fatherland) are back in vogue.
Only last summer, the German flag was a symbol of a joyous, multicultural nation of soccer fans. Now it's being waved above the heads of Pegida followers as they crow: "Germany is awakening. For our fatherland, for Germany, it is our country, the country of our ancestors, descendants and children."
Where does this new nationalism, dressed up as patriotism, come from? "Disenchanted citizens with right-wing sympathies" are unable to cope with the social change of the last few decades," says Alexander Häusler, an expert on right-wing extremism in Düsseldorf. The protestors are pursuing a "restorative image of society" that roughly corresponds to Germany in the 1950s, long before it became a country of immigration.
"The collaboration between society and lawmakers is breaking down," says Werner Patzelt, a political scientist at the Technical University of Dresden. For decades, he explains, there was far too little investment in political education, especially in Saxony. That too has helped fuel the marches.
Many citizens apparently believe that politicians and the media are treating an important issue -- the effects of immigration on society -- as a taboo. Their dissatisfaction isn't just expressed in the streets, but also in the tone of discourse in social media. It's also a popular subject for books. For instance, writer Udo Ulfkotte's book of conspiracy theories, "Bought Journalists," is currently a bestseller.
The so-called mainstream media supposed suppression of the truth has prompted Ulfkotte to speak out loudly for years. One of his subjects is a little-known variant of "holy war." Ulfkotte, a former journalist with the respected national daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, suggested on the Internet that Muslims could be deliberately contaminating European food products with their excrement. "Even the intelligence services have been warning us for years about fecal matter jihad," he wrote.
Christian Jung, an official with the city of Munich, has also struck a chord with the public. When we meet for a beer at the Isarthor pub, he looks very unassuming in his brown cardigan, as he pleasantly discusses his website Blu-News, founded in 2012, which bills itself as "middle-class, liberal and independent." The site is one of the biggest in the nationalist conservative community. Jung describes it as an "alternative medium with a politically incorrect and provocative voice."
But this isn't an accurate reflection of reality. For instance, the site characterizes the group Hooligans Against Salafists as part of a new protest culture that is being "treated unfairly in the media," and Blu-News also shows shock videos about Islamic State in which children are holding severed heads in their hands. The commentary reads: "It's the religion, nothing else. This hell cannot be explained without Islam." According to Jung, a former official with the anti-Islam party Die Freiheit (Freedom), the video is the most successful on the site to date, with more than 300,000 views.
Each of these websites links to other sites. One click after another takes us more and more deeply into a parallel world that perceives itself as a bulwark against "foreign infiltration." There's also the Patriotic Platform, which aligns itself with the anti-euro party Alternative for Germany (AfD). Another website is called Nuremberg 2.0 Germany, which wants to put about 100 prominent citizens, like former President Christian Wulff, on trial for the alleged "systematic Islamization of Germany" -- using the Nuremberg war crimes trials as its model.
Another blog, "Heerlager der Heiligen" (The Camp of the Saints), is named after a novel by French author Jean Raspail popular with the right, in which Indian refugees storm the European continent after a famine in their country.
'A Radical, Parallel Society Is Taking Shape'
Apparently the beginnings of militant structures are also taking shape in the wake of their wave of anger. The Berlin state security agency is now investigating an obscure group known as the German Resistance Movement (DWB), which has been linked to four attempted arson attacks on the national offices of the CDU, the Reichstag building in Berlin and the Paul Löbe parliamentary building.
Between Aug. 25 and Nov. 24, previously unknown assailants threw Molotov cocktails at the buildings, which fortunately caused only minor property damage. According to pamphlets the group left behind at the sites, today's prevailing "multicultural, multiethnic, multi-religious and multi-historical population mix" will "subvert and Balkanize the country."
"A radical, parallel society is taking shape here," says Andreas Zick, director of the Institute of Interdisciplinary Conflict and Violence Studies at the University of Bielefeld in northwestern Germany. What is especially unsettling, he adds, is that a number of previously separate groups and mini-groups are now on the verge of creating "a shared nationalist and chauvinist identity."
In addition to populist opponents of the euro, anti-Islam agitators and nationalists, these groups include classic right-wing extremists and, more and more openly, a portion of the AfD -- "and a large number of people who simply don't care about this country anymore," says Zick.
The emergence of Pegida, Zick explains, has made it possible to unite all of these groups behind a single banner. "I think this is dangerous, because there are many people with violent tendencies in those groups." This willingness to commit acts of violence is currently more palpable than measurable, he adds, "but I'm convinced that this will eventually tilt in another direction." Even today, says social psychologist Zick, the demonstrators' countless anti-foreigner slogans can be seen as veiled threats, as if the crowds were preparing a return to some kind of ethnic German ideal. "They may be chanting, 'We are the people,'" he adds, but they might as well be saying, "We are the (ethnic) German people." It's a message that is exclusionary toward immigrants and foreigners.
Meanwhile, in Dresden, Saxony Governor Stanislaw Tillich is trying to formulate an official position. He was long been silent about the conservative right-wing throngs appearing at the city's Schlossplatz square every Monday, within view of the state government headquarters. CDU politician Tillich apparently believes the Pegida will eventually go away.
For now, he says, he wants to "start a conversation" with the "patriotic Europeans," in order to alleviate their "anxieties." But in his statements earlier this month, he neglected to mention the anxieties of refugees and Muslims, who must live in fear of being attacked by the right-wing mob.
He has since made more clear statements against Pegida. In an interview with the Leipziger Volkszeitung newspaper published on Sunday, Tillich noted that the world had been opened up to residents of Saxony after the fall of the Berlin Wall and that world must also be welcomed in the state. One day before the next major Pegida demonstration, he warned that Saxons should not have walls in their heads and that they should be open and curious about in experiencing enrichment.
Meanwhile, the counter-protests are growing. On Monday, anti-Pegida organizers are planning demonstrations in Dresden, Munich, Würzberg and Nuremberg. Similar protests are slated for Cologne, Leipzig, Düsseldorf and Frankfurt in January. There's even a hashtag for the counter-protests: #niewieda, "never again," the anti-Nazi slogan that has been a standard rallying cry against right-wing sentiment in Germany since the end of World War II.
By Maik Baumgärtner, Jörg Diehl, Frank Hornig, Maximillian Popp, Sven Röbel, Jörg Schindler, Wolf Wiedmann-Schmidt and Steffen Winter
Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan
- Part 1: Anti-Muslim Movement Rattles Germany
- Part 2: Imaginations Run Wild
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2014
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH
Click on the links below for more information about DER SPIEGEL's history, how to subscribe or purchase the latest issue of the German-language edition in print or digital form or how to obtain rights to reprint SPIEGEL articles.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Everything You Need to Know about DER SPIEGEL
- Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL
- A New Home in HafenCity: SPIEGEL's New Hamburg HQ
- Reprints: How To License SPIEGEL Articles