Hidden Homophobia: Is Germany Really as Liberal as It Seems?

By Anna Kistner, Dirk Kurbjuweit, Ann-Katrin Müller and Simone Salden

Photo Gallery: How Tolerant Is Germany Photos
DPA

Germany last week celebrated the coming out of former professional football player Thomas Hitzlsperger. But discrimination remains a fact of life for gays and lesbians in the country. How truly liberal is German society?

A gay couple that was seeking to open a restaurant near the Bavarian town of Freying received an anonymous letter early last year. "Stay away. We don't need people like you here," it read. Additional threats followed, including a faked obituary and an open, though anonymous, letter claiming that one of the two was HIV-positive and that there was a danger that diners could be infected. The restaurant was never opened.

Can a story like be really be true? In Germany of all places, a country that was last week enraptured by the coming out of former professional footballer Thomas Hitzlsperger and where it seemed like the entire country supported him?

Hitzlsperger made his announcement in the influential weekly Die Zeit, unleashing a tidal wave of media backing. "Respect" blared the left-wing Berlin daily Die Tageszeitung. Its conservative counterpart Bild chose the exact same headline, marking one of the very few times when the two publications have concurred. Everyone in the country seemed to be in agreement when it came to Hitzlsperger's courageous step.

Yet the jubilation was so great that it at times seemed a bit too much for the occasion. A former football player came out. Is that really such a monumental event? Of course its progress when it is made clear that homosexuality exists in the world of football as well. No player the caliber of Hitzlsperger had thus far gone public with his homosexuality.

But the rejoicing sounded suspiciously self-serving and smug: "We are so amazingly liberal that we can even get excited about a gay professional football player," the message seemed to be. "Germany is so much better than Russia, where homosexuals are openly discriminated against, and superior to France, where hundreds of thousands take to the streets to protest gay marriage."

One could almost feel the relief at the fact that the positive reaction to Hitzlsperger's announcement was large enough to cover up the normal hostilities, clichés, stereotypes and discrimination against gays that exist in Germany. But they were there. Even as Bild pronounced its "respect" for Hitzlsperger, the paper's columnist Franz Josef Wagner wrote in an open letter to the former German national team player: "Nobody thought that you are gay. You were athletic, a power-player." The prejudice was clear, even as it was hidden behind the admiration.

Cause for Celebration?

Wagner's bias came despite Hitzlsperger telling Die Zeit that "it is pure nonsense that homosexuals are 'unmanly.' One is confronted by this preconception again and again."

While Hitzlsperger was being celebrated across the country, the main churches in the southern German state of Baden-Württemberg announced last Friday that they were opposed to a plan to include lessons on homosexuality in the school curriculum.

This parallelism comes closer to the German reality. Another element to consider is Chancellor Angela Merkel's strict opposition to adoption rights for homosexual couples. How great really is the cause for celebration in Germany?

Secondary school teacher Gabriel Stängle is likewise concerned about public school students in Baden-Württemberg. The 41-year-old, lives in the Black Forest and launched an online petition in November of last year that had been signed some 90,000 times by last Friday evening. His campaign is entitled: "Future -- Responsibility -- Learning: No Curriculum 2015 under the Ideology of the Rainbow." Stängle's primary concern is what he describes as sexual "reeducation."

Stängle is angry with the state government -- a coalition of the center-left Social Democrats and the Green Party -- which is currently developing an educational program for public schools which will include the "acceptance of sexual diversity." Students are to learn the "differences between the genders, sexual identities and sexual orientations." The goal is to enable students to "be able to defend equality and justice."

Stängle sees this as being in "direct opposition to health education as it has been practiced thus far." Completely missing, he writes, is an "ethical reflection on the negative potential by-products of LSBTTIQ (which stands for "lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals, transgender, intersexuals and queer people) lifestyles, such as the increased danger of suicide among homosexual youth, the increased susceptibility to alcohol and drugs, the conspicuously high rate of HIV infection among homosexual men, the substantially lower life-expectancy among homo- and bisexual men, the pronounced risk of psychological illness among men and women living as homosexuals."

'Open and Tolerant'

Most of the petitions' signatories live in the rural, conservative regions of Germany's southwest and the majority wishes to remain anonymous. Some signed with handles such as "The Gay-Hater."

Baden-Württemberg Education Minister Andreas Stoch (of the SPD) finds the petition to be "wrong and discriminatory." The claim that his ministry wishes to reeducate students is "completely absurd," Stoch says. "We want to educate children to be open and tolerant."

Peter Hauk, floor leader for Chancellor Merkel's Christian Democratic Union in the state parliament, on the other hand, says he can "understand the fears." He is bothered by the fact that the state government has elevated sexual diversity to a "guiding principle." Education, he says, must be oriented towards Christian and Western educational and cultural values, as is enshrined in Article 16 of the state's constitution.

The churches agree. Children and youth should not be influenced as they search for their sexual identity, reads a joint statement released by Catholic and Protestant churches in Baden-Württemberg. "Functionalization, instrumentalization, ideology and indoctrination must be defended against," the statement reads. That, of course, has long been the churches' strategy: avoid influencing people, particularly when it comes to sexual orientation. At least as long as heterosexuality was the predominant order of the day.

The well-respected Frankfurt-based sexologist Volkmar Sigusch, on the other hand, sees the Baden-Württemberg plan for its curriculum as a "long-overdue step toward educating children and youth about the cultural normality in our country." The issue of sexual diversity "badly needs to be (normalized) so that children can develop sexually in an atmosphere free of fear."

It looks a lot like Baden-Württemberg is sliding into a culture war -- despite the onset of the age of Hitzlsperger.

It's a situation that has been seen before. During last year's Christopher Street Day -- the name given in Germany gay pride parades and events -- the Baden-Württemberg government flew the rainbow flag over the state capitol building for the first time. But this show of solidarity with gays and lesbians went too far for the deputy head of the state's CDU chapter, Winfried Mack. He criticized the move as "undignified and dumb" adding that only the state flag should be raised above the capitol.

Article...
For reasons of data protection and privacy, your IP address will only be stored if you are a registered user of Facebook and you are currently logged in to the service. For more detailed information, please click on the "i" symbol.

Post to other social networks

Comments
Discuss this issue with other readers!
7 total posts
Show all comments
    Page 1    
1. Homophobia
spon-facebook-10000217875 01/13/2014
If I'm not mistaken a phobia is an irrational fear of something. I assume the prefix "homo" refers to "homosexuals". To say someone is homophobic should mean that they have an irrational fear of homosexual. However, this term is used to demonize anyone who disagrees with the homosexual agenda. On well established religious grounds I am opposed to the agenda of the homosexual movement and do not consider myself in the least homophobic. I wish there could be a civil discussion about human sexuality without the name calling. What someone wants to do in private is their own business, but they should not subject me to it or judge me because I disagree with their sensibilities or lack there of.
2. The fact is, Germany has an obsession with sex!
Inglenda2 01/13/2014
Whereas the Russian government treats homosexuals as criminals, in Western countries a large part of the media and a small but loud minority of people, want to see such behaviour treated as something normal. As with most differences of opinion, the truth is probably to be found in the middle. To call all criticism Homophobia however, is just as false as to say „all homosexuals can be cured of this abnormality.” German society is very liberal, perhaps too liberal, but unusual private relationships are not something, for which the sympathy of others should be publicly demanded. They are a matter for the persons involved.
3. Against The Nature Of Man. Doomed To Fail!
FrankHaertlein 01/13/2014
Birds of a feather will always flock together. To impose the debased standards of liberalism on society will fail, ultimately, as a result.
4. optional
ka5s 01/14/2014
Reaction to the excesses of the late 1920's and early 1930's Berlin nightclub scene was one reason for for the success of social reactionaries. Perhaps -- just perhaps -- a slower and less (as we say in the US ) "in your face" approach might now have a less harmful result.
5. homophobia
broremann 01/14/2014
the liberal may pretend homophobia is gone, but there is plenty hate out there, the gay people have long way to go before they are accepted in our society
Show all comments
    Page 1    
Keep track of the news

Stay informed with our free news services:

All news from SPIEGEL International
Twitter | RSS
All news from Germany section
RSS

© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2014
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH



  • Print Send
  • Feedback
  • Comment | 7 Comments
From DER SPIEGEL

Photo Gallery
Photo Gallery: Hitzlsperger's Football Career

European Partners
Facebook
Twitter