Hidden Homophobia: Is Germany Really as Liberal as It Seems?
Germany last week celebrated the coming out of former professional football player Thomas Hitzlsperger. But discrimination remains a fact of life for gays and lesbians in the country. How truly liberal is German society?
A gay couple that was seeking to open a restaurant near the Bavarian town of Freying received an anonymous letter early last year. "Stay away. We don't need people like you here," it read. Additional threats followed, including a faked obituary and an open, though anonymous, letter claiming that one of the two was HIV-positive and that there was a danger that diners could be infected. The restaurant was never opened.
Can a story like be really be true? In Germany of all places, a country that was last week enraptured by the coming out of former professional footballer Thomas Hitzlsperger and where it seemed like the entire country supported him?
Hitzlsperger made his announcement in the influential weekly Die Zeit, unleashing a tidal wave of media backing. "Respect" blared the left-wing Berlin daily Die Tageszeitung. Its conservative counterpart Bild chose the exact same headline, marking one of the very few times when the two publications have concurred. Everyone in the country seemed to be in agreement when it came to Hitzlsperger's courageous step.
Yet the jubilation was so great that it at times seemed a bit too much for the occasion. A former football player came out. Is that really such a monumental event? Of course its progress when it is made clear that homosexuality exists in the world of football as well. No player the caliber of Hitzlsperger had thus far gone public with his homosexuality.
But the rejoicing sounded suspiciously self-serving and smug: "We are so amazingly liberal that we can even get excited about a gay professional football player," the message seemed to be. "Germany is so much better than Russia, where homosexuals are openly discriminated against, and superior to France, where hundreds of thousands take to the streets to protest gay marriage."
One could almost feel the relief at the fact that the positive reaction to Hitzlsperger's announcement was large enough to cover up the normal hostilities, clichés, stereotypes and discrimination against gays that exist in Germany. But they were there. Even as Bild pronounced its "respect" for Hitzlsperger, the paper's columnist Franz Josef Wagner wrote in an open letter to the former German national team player: "Nobody thought that you are gay. You were athletic, a power-player." The prejudice was clear, even as it was hidden behind the admiration.
Cause for Celebration?
Wagner's bias came despite Hitzlsperger telling Die Zeit that "it is pure nonsense that homosexuals are 'unmanly.' One is confronted by this preconception again and again."
While Hitzlsperger was being celebrated across the country, the main churches in the southern German state of Baden-Württemberg announced last Friday that they were opposed to a plan to include lessons on homosexuality in the school curriculum.
This parallelism comes closer to the German reality. Another element to consider is Chancellor Angela Merkel's strict opposition to adoption rights for homosexual couples. How great really is the cause for celebration in Germany?
Secondary school teacher Gabriel Stängle is likewise concerned about public school students in Baden-Württemberg. The 41-year-old, lives in the Black Forest and launched an online petition in November of last year that had been signed some 90,000 times by last Friday evening. His campaign is entitled: "Future -- Responsibility -- Learning: No Curriculum 2015 under the Ideology of the Rainbow." Stängle's primary concern is what he describes as sexual "reeducation."
Stängle is angry with the state government -- a coalition of the center-left Social Democrats and the Green Party -- which is currently developing an educational program for public schools which will include the "acceptance of sexual diversity." Students are to learn the "differences between the genders, sexual identities and sexual orientations." The goal is to enable students to "be able to defend equality and justice."
Stängle sees this as being in "direct opposition to health education as it has been practiced thus far." Completely missing, he writes, is an "ethical reflection on the negative potential by-products of LSBTTIQ (which stands for "lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals, transgender, intersexuals and queer people) lifestyles, such as the increased danger of suicide among homosexual youth, the increased susceptibility to alcohol and drugs, the conspicuously high rate of HIV infection among homosexual men, the substantially lower life-expectancy among homo- and bisexual men, the pronounced risk of psychological illness among men and women living as homosexuals."
'Open and Tolerant'
Most of the petitions' signatories live in the rural, conservative regions of Germany's southwest and the majority wishes to remain anonymous. Some signed with handles such as "The Gay-Hater."
Baden-Württemberg Education Minister Andreas Stoch (of the SPD) finds the petition to be "wrong and discriminatory." The claim that his ministry wishes to reeducate students is "completely absurd," Stoch says. "We want to educate children to be open and tolerant."
Peter Hauk, floor leader for Chancellor Merkel's Christian Democratic Union in the state parliament, on the other hand, says he can "understand the fears." He is bothered by the fact that the state government has elevated sexual diversity to a "guiding principle." Education, he says, must be oriented towards Christian and Western educational and cultural values, as is enshrined in Article 16 of the state's constitution.
The churches agree. Children and youth should not be influenced as they search for their sexual identity, reads a joint statement released by Catholic and Protestant churches in Baden-Württemberg. "Functionalization, instrumentalization, ideology and indoctrination must be defended against," the statement reads. That, of course, has long been the churches' strategy: avoid influencing people, particularly when it comes to sexual orientation. At least as long as heterosexuality was the predominant order of the day.
The well-respected Frankfurt-based sexologist Volkmar Sigusch, on the other hand, sees the Baden-Württemberg plan for its curriculum as a "long-overdue step toward educating children and youth about the cultural normality in our country." The issue of sexual diversity "badly needs to be (normalized) so that children can develop sexually in an atmosphere free of fear."
It looks a lot like Baden-Württemberg is sliding into a culture war -- despite the onset of the age of Hitzlsperger.
It's a situation that has been seen before. During last year's Christopher Street Day -- the name given in Germany gay pride parades and events -- the Baden-Württemberg government flew the rainbow flag over the state capitol building for the first time. But this show of solidarity with gays and lesbians went too far for the deputy head of the state's CDU chapter, Winfried Mack. He criticized the move as "undignified and dumb" adding that only the state flag should be raised above the capitol.
- Part 1: Is Germany Really as Liberal as It Seems?
- Part 2: The Meaning of 'Gay'
Stay informed with our free news services:
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2014
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH
Click on the links below for more information about DER SPIEGEL's history, how to subscribe or purchase the latest issue of the German-language edition in print or digital form or how to obtain rights to reprint SPIEGEL articles.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Everything You Need to Know about DER SPIEGEL
- Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL
- A New Home in HafenCity: SPIEGEL's New Hamburg HQ
- Reprints: How To License SPIEGEL Articles
MORE FROM SPIEGEL INTERNATIONAL
German PoliticsMerkel's Moves: Power Struggles in Berlin
World War IITruth and Reconciliation: Why the War Still Haunts Europe
EnergyGreen Power: The Future of Energy
European UnionUnited Europe: A Continental Project
Climate ChangeGlobal Warming: Curbing Carbon Before It's Too Late