Football Violence Neo-Nazis and Hooligans Find Common Ground
Football is increasingly becoming a platform for right-wing extremist violence across Germany. Alarmed sociologists and security experts warn of a new danger: a network of neo-Nazis and hooligans.
They call themselves the GnuHonnters, a take on the English term "new hunters." Their motto is: "Comrades in spirit. Many colors, but one entity." It refers to the fact that they support different soccer clubs. Three weeks ago, some of the members met at a small celebration in Berlin, as one hooligan group marked the 30th anniversary of its founding. There was beer, rock music, strippers and table dances. Eventually, one of the guests, a tattooed tank of a man with a bald head, trudged through the room with a giant snake on his shoulders.
The GnuHonnters are a consortium of 17 different soccer hooligan groups from all over Germany. Hooligans have traditionally battled each other, but now they have teamed up to form a network to fight together for a common cause. Worryingly, they are increasingly being supported in their efforts by violent right-wing extremists.
In the past, Western Europe was beset with violence at football games caused by troublemakers among each club's group of fans. But, in recent years, hooligan activity has been successfully suppressed by massive police operations with the cooperation of ordinary fans inside the stadiums of German professional football clubs playing in the two divisions of the Bundesliga, the country's top soccer league.
In response, the thugs have taken to fixing a time and a place with each other beforehand, so that they can meet and fight away from the stadiums and out of the public eye on grassland and fields. But now hooligan culture is on the rise again. Fan commissioners from Aachen, Braunschweig, Dortmund, Düsseldorf and Frankfurt report that hooligans who were active as long ago as the 1990s are once again showing their faces in the stands.
'Planned and Well-Organized' Attacks on Police
The Central Sporting Operation Information Center, a police body that tracks football violence, has attested to the fact that, in the fan bases of the Bundesliga clubs, there has been an increase "in right-wing motivated behavior" in the violent hooligan scene. At 16 clubs, the center identifies a crossover in membership between the football and far-right scenes. The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Germany's domestic intelligence agency, has spoken of a 15 percent overlap between football-affiliated hooligans and right-wing extremists. However, security officials in the Ruhr region of western Germany say the real figure is likely to be much higher.
In a trial involving the Elbflorenz hooligan group in Dresden, it emerged that many of the thugs work together. "There are repeated instances of violent attacks on police officers involving hundreds of hooligans on the fringes of football games -- planned and well-organized. We realized that there were increasingly violent right-wing extremists among them. Apparently they use the hooligan clashes as training," said chief prosecutor Jürgen Schär, who led the prosecution of the Elbflorenz hooligans, according to the Dresden-based daily Sächsische Zeitung.
Schär further revealed that hooligans and neo-Nazis had met together in remote forests for weapons practice.
"Since we started aggressively pursuing right-wing gangs, their members changed the focus of their activities to hooliganism or autonomous neo-Nazi groups," Schär said. "For us, it has become more difficult to catch them."
Thugs and the far-right seem to particularly like the football environment, and there is also an enemy at hand in the form of so-called "ultras." In many European countries, ultras are traditionally a club's most passionate fans, traveling to all the games and making the most noise in support.
For many ultra groups in Germany, in particular, being a fan goes hand in hand with certain political themes. They support anti-racism campaigns and demonstrate against commercialization. That does not fit with the hooligans' ethos, as it goes against their macho and violent world. Hooligans tell the ultras that they want "no politics in the stadium." It's an old slogan that right-wing exremists have used for years to infiltrate amateur sports clubs and youth movements. They want to win over young people through this ostensible separation of sport and politics, and to create a national consciousness through common fashions and music or attending openly right-wing speeches. It's subtle agitation.
Members of the GnuHonnters are easy prey. Like many right-wing extremists, they have a common enemy: They also consider the often left-wing orientated ultras a bane.
The GnuHonnters network was founded on a farm in the town of Leichlingen, in the western state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Back then, at the beginning of 2012, the meeting was made up almost exclusively of old-time hooligans with paunches. Members of the Borussenfront, a group of hooligans associated with the Borussia Dortmund club, sent out the invitations, and it was the perfect chance to drink beer and reminisce over battles past. That's how the event was described by one person who has since attended more meetings of the hooligans.
From meeting to meeting, the number of people in attendance grew, with many more younger hooligans, martial artists and youth squads. They met sometimes in Frankfurt, sometimes in Berlin, and never in the same place twice. A crude pamphlet was written and has acted ever since as a kind of mission statement. Top priority: "Re-establishing old values." Second goal: "No anti-fascists in the stadium." Third goal: "Win back freedom of speech."
Attacks by right-wing hooligans on left-wing fan groups have been on the rise for months. The most prominent example is with the long-established club Alemania Aachen, whose ultras fan group, Ultras Aachen, was forced out of its own stadium by continuous attacks from the far-right.
- Part 1: Neo-Nazis and Hooligans Find Common Ground
- Part 2: Trouble in the Stands