Files Uncovered: Nazi Veterans Created Illegal Army

By Klaus Wiegrefe

Photo Gallery: Adenauer and the Clandestine Army Photos
Corbis

Newly discovered documents show that in the years after World War II, former members of the Nazi Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS formed a secret army to protect the country from the Soviets. The illegal project could have sparked a major scandal at the time.

For nearly six decades, the 321-page file lay unnoticed in the archives of the BND, Germany's foreign intelligence agency -- but now its contents have revealed a new chapter of German postwar history that is as spectacular as it is mysterious.

The previously secret documents reveal the existence of a coalition of approximately 2,000 former officers -- veterans of the Nazi-era Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS -- who decided to put together an army in postwar Germany in 1949. They made their preparations without a mandate from the German government, without the knowledge of the parliament and, the documents show, by circumventing Allied occupation forces.

The goal of the retired officers: to defend nascent West Germany against Eastern aggression in the early stages of the Cold War and, on the domestic front, deploy against the Communists in the event of a civil war. It collected information about left-wing politicians like Social Democrat (SPD) Fritz Erler, a key player in reforming the party after World War II, and spied on students like Joachim Peckert, who later became a senior official at the West German Embassy in Moscow during the 1970s.

The new discovery was brought about by a coincidence. Historian Agilolf Kesselring found the documents -- which belonged to the Gehlen Organization, the predecessor to the current foreign intelligence agency -- while working for an Independent Historical Commission hired by the BND to investigate its early history. Similar commissions have been hired by a number of German authorities in recent years, including the Finance and Foreign Ministries to create an accurate record of once hushed-up legacies.

Kesselring uncovered the documents, which were given the strange title of "Insurances," while trying to determine the number of workers employed by the BND.

Instead of insurance papers, Kesselring stumbled upon what can now be considered the most significant discovery of the Independent Historical Commission. The study he wrote based on the discovery was released this week.

An Ease in Undermining Democracy

The file is incomplete and thus needs to be considered with some restraint. Even so, its contents testify to the ease with which democratic and constitutional standards could be undermined in the early years of West Germany's existence.

According to the papers, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer didn't find out about the existence of the paramilitary group until 1951, at which point he evidently did not decide to break it up.

In the event of a war, the documents claimed, the secret army would include 40,000 fighters. The involvement of leading figures in Germany's future armed forces, the Bundeswehr, are an indication of just how serious the undertaking was likely to have been.

Among its most important actors was Albert Schnez. Schnez was born in 1911 and served as a colonel in World War II before ascending the ranks of the Bundeswehr, which was founded in 1955. By the end of the 1950s he was part of the entourage of then Defense Minister Franz Josef Strauss (CDU) and later served the German army chief under Chancellor Willy Brandt and Defense Minister Helmut Schmidt (both of the SPD).

Statements by Schnez quoted in the documents suggest that the project to build a clandestine army was also supported by Hans Speidel -- who would become the NATO Supreme Commander of the Allied Army in Central Europe in 1957 -- and Adolf Heusinger, the first inspector general of the Bundeswehr.

Kesselring, the historian, has a special connection to military history: His grandfather Albert was a general field marshal and southern supreme commander in the Third Reich, with Schnez as his subordinate "general of transportation" in Italy. Both men tried to prevent Germany's partial surrender in Italy.

In his study, Kesselring lets Schnez off easily: He doesn't mention his ties to the right-wing milieu, and he describes his spying on supposed left-wingers as "security checks." When asked about it, the historian explains that he will deal with these aspects of the file in a comprehensive study in the coming year. But the BND has recently released the "Insurances" files, making it possible to paint an independent picture.

The army project began in the postwar period in Swabia, the region surrounding Stuttgart, where then 40-year-old Schnez traded in wood, textiles and household items and, on the side, organized social evenings for the veterans of the 25th Infantry Division, in which he had served. They helped one another out, supported the widows and orphans of colleagues and spoke about times old and new.

Fears of Attack from the East

But their debates always returned to the same question: What should be done if the Russians or their Eastern European allies invade? West Germany was still without an army at the time, and the Americans had removed many of their GIs from Europe in 1945.

At first, Schnez' group considered allowing themselves to be defeated and then leading partisan warfare from behind the lines, before relocating somewhere outside of Germany. In the event of a sudden attack from the East, an employee with the Gehlen Organization would later write, Schnez wanted to withdraw his troops and bring them to safety outside of Germany. They would then wage the battle to free Germany from abroad.

To prepare a response to the potential threat, Schnez, the son of a Swabian government official, sought to found an army. Even though it violated Allied law -- military or "military-like" organizations were banned, and those who contravened the rules risked life in prison -- it quickly became very popular.

The army began to take shape starting at the latest in 1950. Schnez recruited donations from businesspeople and like-minded former officers, contacted veterans groups of other divisions, asked transport companies which vehicles they could provide in the worst-case scenario and worked on an emergency plan.

Anton Grasser, a former infantry general who was then employed by Schnez' company, took care of the weapons. In 1950, he began his career at the Federal Interior Ministry in Bonn, where he became inspector general and oversaw the coordination of German Police Tactical Units in the German states for the event of war. He wanted to use their assets to equip the troop in case of an emergency. There is no sign that then Interior Minister Robert Lehr had been informed of these plans.

Schnez wanted to found an organization of units composed of former officers, ideally entire staffs of elite divisions of the Wehrmacht, which could be rapidly deployed in case of an attack. According to the lists contained in the documents, the men were all employed: They included businesspeople, sales representatives, a coal merchant, a criminal lawyer, an attorney, a technical instructor and even a mayor. Presumably they were all anti-Communists and, in some cases, motivated by a desire for adventure. For example, the documents state that retired Lieutenant General Hermann Hölter "didn't feel happy just working in an office."

Most of the members of the secret reserve lived in southern Germany. An overview in the documents shows that Rudolf von Bünau, a retired infantry general, led a "group staff" out of Stuttgart. There were further sub-units in Ulm (led by retired Lieutenant General Hans Wagner), Heilbronn (retired Lieutenant General Alfred Reinhardt), Karlsruhe (retired Major General Werner Kampfhenkel), Freiburg (retired Major General Wilhelm Nagel) and many other cities as well.

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1. The Secret Army
ffeingo2 05/14/2014
As the grandson of German Jews who prospered for 500 years in Germany, fought in the Franco Prussian wars and WW i, and emigrated at the right time,I fail to see why this emergency military measure should attract any negative press. The Criminal Hitler was gone but the Insane Stalin survived. Among other noteworthy events was The Katyn massacre, the expulsion of the Eastern Germans...I believe that The Secret Army was very much justified.
2. Not every anti-Communist is a Nazi.
Inglenda2 05/14/2014
A little more truth in German journalism in regard to the former Wehrmacht would not be out of place. Active soldiers of the Wehrmacht were not permitted to be members of political parties. To call all these, often conscripted, young people Nazis, is more than a deviation of the facts. Many of those who died in action had been placed in the front lines for the very reason, that they had not supported Hitler in the way the leadership had required. To be posted to areas, in which the worst fighting was taking place, was very often nothing more than a punishment for having a different opinion to those in power. The fact is, the Wehrmacht was looked upon, by most of those fighting on the other side, as a very disciplined and professional fighting force. It has always been a puzzle for us, to see how modern day Germans have been so ready and willing, to believe their own forefathers were little more than a bunch of political criminals. These young people were pushed into armed conflict in the name of their country, just as others in many parts of the world were and still are. Those who had experienced the horrific brutality of the Soviet forces, had every reason to fear that Russia would try to steal even more of Germany than had already been the case in 1945. This was an anxiety which was shared by Winston Churchill! Does the Spiegel accuse him of being a Nazi?
3. Occupation
wernercomplex 05/14/2014
As someone who lived trough the Soviet, French, Moroccan Occupation I find this article not in the least bit disturbing.
4. Not unexpected.
roscoe2 05/14/2014
It is inconceivable that a nation, one that had been so united and so defeated, would not have had both an official and unofficial under-ground movement - possibly sponsored by the West - during the period of Stalinist expansionism and aggression. While not endorsing anything regarding Nazism in any way, I would have been disappointed if the German people, and its defense structure, had not developed a plan to fight for their country against the Soviets. Stalin's intent was to ultimately take all of Europe, not just the remainder of Germany as evinced by his later actions and the creation of the DDR and the Berlin Blockade. Danagerous times demand that patriots of all countries prepare for possible eventuallities, particularly during the dangerous days of the so-called "Cold War." Patriots, of whatever ilk or nationality, must prepare to defend their people from aggression, especially against a regime such as the USSR.
5. Intelligence agency muky past- stoked by same old money
lol1232 05/14/2014
"As the CIA reported prior to the German government's 1956 takeover of the Gehlen Organization, the government was no longer concerned with "former Nazi and SS-types," in the CIA's words. If there was ignorance on the matter, it was only because no one wanted to know -- not Gehlen, not Adenauer, not Globke and presumably many others as well. As Gehlen once told the CIA, his agency employed, in percentage terms, fewer former SS and SD members "than most ministries." -Feb.16 2011 Speigel article [Intelligence agency muky past] Nothing happens that the international banking system doesn't know about...they are in charge.
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