SPIEGEL in-depth interview with Zurich professor of psychiatry Jules Angst, on the greater risk of addiction, the pronounced tendency towards repression and the higher risk among men to fall victim to their own aggression:
"The role of cultural matters in human development must not be trivialised; but human beings cannot change their inborn predisposition. In their motor activities boys are already more outwardly oriented. Their body plays a much greater role than with girls. Here it's a question of who will be first in gym. Like primates, the boys fight for their position in the hierarchy. Alcohol is consumed extremely frequently by men in order to cope with stress or fear. I would estimate that about one alcoholic in three is a depressive man. The desire not to have to feel anything any more, to numb oneself, increases the propensity for addiction. Men have a stronger tendency to repress memories, and they are poor observers."
"The Other Side of the Fun"
Orthopaedics: Kinetic energy is the be-all and end-all of sports - and also of sports injuries. New statistics show that it is not the "high-risk" sports that are the most dangerous, but team sports in which human bodies collide with one another.
"They Are Misusing My Name"
SPIEGEL in-depth interview with James Tobin, winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, on the unexpected resurrection of his speculation tax, his troubled relationship with the opponents of globalisation, and the mistakes made by the European Central Bank:
"I am being applauded by the wrong side. I'm in favour of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the World Trade Organisation - all the things that these people are against. No, I'm not part of that movement. My model of imposing a tax on currency turnover was intended as a means of damping fluctuations in the currency exchange rates. The idea is quite simple: each time you changed money from one currency to another you'd have to pay a tax, say one percent of the turnover. That would frighten off speculators. My tax would give the central banks a little more room for action again, so as to break away from the dictates of the financial markets. The whole idea of the IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation being enemies of developing countries, is one I find totally misdirected. The problems of globalisation are not going to be solved by obstructing it. All countries and their inhabitants profit by the free exchange of goods and capital. The euro is suffering from the fact that Europe is not in a good state in macroeconomics terms. This is the fault of the European Central Bank, which for a long time did not feel capable of pursuing a policy like that of America's Federal Reserve."
"Our First Partner Should Be Germany"
SPIEGEL interview with Leszek Miller, top left-wing candidate in the Polish elections, on the economic crisis, his country's relations with its neighbours and his party's relationship with the German SPD and PDS:
"Our economic problems also stem from the fact that the economic growth in Poland has been artificially slowed down by the high interest rate policy. That was a mistake. We have got to change our tax and labour laws and encourage small and medium-sized businesses. And we have got to revive the markets we have lost in the east - to some extent for ideological reasons, as our anti-Russian phobia shows. I would rule out our establishing relations with the Belarusian head of state Alexander Lukashenko. We are not in contact with the PDS. However, we have very frequent meetings with the Social Democrats."
Japan: Although the parliament in far-away Lima unanimously accused him last week of being responsible for two massacres, in which 25 people lost their lives, and although Peruvian public prosecutors have also opened investigations against him on suspicion of other offences, such as neglect of duty and embezzlement of state funds - thanks to his influential friends, fugitive Peruvian ex-president Fujimori can feel safe in Tokyo.
"The Law of the Seas"
Australia: The refugee drama surrounding the freighter "Tampa". What has been taking place in the Indian Ocean before the eyes of a thunderstruck general public, contains a whole number of lessons: about the money made on the misfortunes of poor devils from famine-stricken countries; about the relationship between international maritime law and national interests; and about the cold-blooded calculation of Australian prime minister John Howard's electioneering. Last but not least, the "Tampa" affair has highlighted the way in which Australia treats unwanted immigrants. A school-book example of the industrial world's fear of the Third World.
"The Dream of the Eagle's Sons"
Albanians: With its mission to disarm the NLA in Macedonia, Nato has made a peace deal with a bunch of guerrilla fighters, and is relying on their word. The NLA rebels, entrenched in the mountain villages of Macedonia, Yugoslavia and Albania, are enjoying the situation and contemplating future skirmishes. Aside from the Albanian regions in Kosovo, Macedonia and the south of Serbia, Albanians who think in broader terms have long started looking to other countries too. There are confirmed reports about NLA propagandists trying to recruit supporters in Montenegro's Albanian strongholds Plav and Gusinje. Another fuse is smouldering in the north-west of Greece: the region around Ioannina, in the mountains of Epirus, which the Albanians defended against the Turkish sultan up until 1822.
Medicine: In Düsseldorf a man has been treated successfully using bone marrow stem cells, after suffering a heart attack. Although the case is still the subject of some debate, it throws a new light on a therapeutic approach that had been drowned out by the ethical debates over embryonic stem cells. The apparent healing growth succeeded with the help of so-called adult stem cells, which had previously been removed from the patient's spinal cord. In the light of the potential breakthrough, adult stem cells suddenly appear to be the ideal essence for future medicine.
"Live Cells from Dead Foetuses"
Doctors from Kiev are profiting from the stem cell debate as they administer a dubious form of therapy. In a run-down clinic in Kiev they receive desperate patients from the West and inject them with a cocktail of cells from aborted foetuses. Aids, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, depression - there is hardly a disorder that the Ukrainian wonder doctors do not claim to be able to heal or at least ease the symptoms of. Their stem cell cure is even claimed to help against impotence. A brisk trade that plays on people's hopes.
"I Was that Lonely Boy"
SPIEGEL in-depth interview with Hollywood film director Steven Spielberg, on the young robot hero of his new film "AI", which is running in Venice outside the main competition, on dreams about a future with artificial intelligence and his childhood enthusiasm for making up creepy stories:
"Unlike Peter Pan, David is not cut off from the rest of mankind. He listens, takes things in and grows by interacting with others. David is a machine that as been programmed to love, and he will always have to carry this burden around with him. Loneliness is certainly a topic that I find absolutely fascinating, because I was one of those lonely boys myself. And I'll admit that the memory of the lonely boy I once used to be still occupies a large space in my life. I made up science fiction stories myself, and I used to tell these stories to my brothers and sisters. For me it was a great success if they went and woke up my mother in the night and complained that they couldn't sleep because of one of Steve's stories. I was a real Brother Grimm. The film director Stanley Kubrick put me onto the subject of artificial intelligence. He had been studying the material for decades, been through several scriptwriters and had countless drawings made for the sets. If you ask "What is by Spielberg, what is by Kubrick?", I can only say: "The script that I inherited from Kubrick contained the beginning and the end of the film. So the end is by Kubrick.""
"Shivers Down Your Spine"
Treasure hunt: 118 years ago, almost 400 emigrants died in the biggest civilian shipping disasters to take place in German waters. Now, divers are recovering the cargo of the steamer "Cimbria" - a million-dollar enterprise. So far the specialists have found large quantities of china, and are hunting for the safe."
"The Mother Courage of Cottbus"
Newspapers: The "Lausitzer Rundschau" was a harmless regional paper. Then a chemist signed up as senior reporter and wrote about corruption and coteries of former state security staff. Now a dirty battle is raging in her home town: the coteries are fighting back. Private investigators are being hired, houses photographed. Apartments are being broken into, death threats are being left on answerphones. The public prosecutor's office has launched an investigation - into the threats and the suspicion of corruption.
"In the Sights of the Nazi Hunters"
SPIEGEL series "The Present of the Past": The pursuit of Nazi criminals continues. Many of the perpetrators are only brought to justice after many, many years - partly because the Church and the state have been protecting them for decades. While this area of justice is quite clearly approaching an age limit, it is not running out of material - on the contrary: shortly before the investigations into the crimes of the century turn into a parade of ghosts, a new vigour is apparent in most places in the hunt for the last remaining perpetrators.
© DER SPIEGEL 36/2001
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