Bali Climate Change Conference: 'We Have Very Little Time to Act'
With the Kyoto Protocol ending in 2012, negotiators are gathering in Bali, Indonesia on Monday to begin coming up with a new, and hopefully better, climate change agreement. Europe's wish list is long and ambitious.
A world with 30 percent fewer species. Huge water shortages caused by disappearing glaciers affecting hundreds of millions of people. Tropical rain forests dying out as ground water disappears. An accelerating overall rise in world temperatures. All this and more could be the world's fate in just a few short decades.
Climate change is already taking its toll. Negotiators at Bali are hoping to provide incentives to poorer countries to stop cutting down rain forests, like this one in Indonesia.
"Scientists are telling us we have a very small window of time in which to act," Yvo de Boer, executive secretary of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), told SPIEGEL ONLINE. "We have 10 or 15 years to turn global emissions from their current upward trend to an extreme downward trend."
Much Tougher than Kyoto
"Our goal in Bali is to convince the rest of the world that we need to have emissions reductions that ensure we do not raise the Earth's median temperature more than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit)," said Barbara Helfferich, European Commission spokeswoman for the environment.
Few are expecting the one week conference to go much beyond identifying the broad directives the ultimate treaty will address and agreeing to draft a new treaty by 2009. But it is the start of a longer negotiating process -- and one that many hope will be much tougher than Kyoto. Under that agreement, 35 of the worlds largest economies committed to cut emissions to 5 percent below 1990 levels by 2012. But with the US not ratifying the treaty and developing countries like China and India allowed to continue spewing as much carbon dioxide as they want into the atmosphere, some of the world's biggest polluters were unaffected. Fewer than 800 million people out of a world population of 6.6 billion live in countries bound by Kyoto to reduce emissions.
The US, though, as the world's largest and dirtiest economy, remains high up on the Europeans' list of Bali priorities. They are hoping that the dramatic findings of the IPCC report -- and a 2009 change in presidential leadership-- might reshape US policy.
"The position of the United States and how much it chooses to obstruct the process -- that will depend on what kind of an agreement there is between the EU and the large developing countries," Dr. Hermann Ott, head of the Berlin office of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, told SPIEGEL ONLINE.
Defining Capacity at Bali
Requiring those rapidly developing countries to control emissions is the second major treaty element that the EU will insist on. Almost 180 nations have signed the Kyoto Protocol, but only the richest nations are bound to make emissions cuts. The new treaty, EU leaders say, must require emissions reductions from other major polluters, like the booming economies of Brazil, China and India. "The contribution of developing countries must be binding as well, in a common but differentiated way," said Helfferich. "That means according to capacity, and what that capacity is needs to be defined at Bali."
But emissions won't be the only focus of the Bali conference and subsequent treaty negotiations. Climate change is already happening. The ice caps are melting, glaciers are receding, and ocean levels are rising -- and some countries are already feeling the effects. EU negotiators and climate researchers stress the need for Kyoto's successor to include a number of preventative and adaptive initiatives -- helping low-lying nations build levies, for example, or agricultural assistance to help poor farmers adapt to changing weather patterns -- to lessen the impact of climate changes that previous emissions have already set in motion.
We have to create mechanisms that allow developing countries to limit emissions without jeopardizing economic growth and poverty eradication, said de Boer. De Boer's UNFCCC is the organizer of the Bali conference, and will direct the ongoing discussions to draft a new treaty.
- Part 1: 'We Have Very Little Time to Act'
- Part 2: 'Mutually Assured Destruction'
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