The Devil in Nigeria: Boko Haram's Reign of Terror
A former Boko Haram kidnapping victim helping Nigerian officials recently found two of the schoolgirls kidnapped in the country. The search for the others remains a desperate one and has also cast light on a destitution rampant in the country's northern states.
The two girls had been tied and were found lying in a clearing in the bush, their faces scratched and bleeding, their school uniforms torn. "They were hardly conscious," says Baba Goni. "They were crying and said that their kidnappers had raped them."
Some of the 276 kidnapped girls have now escaped, including four this week, while 223 remain missing. Those who managed to get away have leveled serious accusations, saying that they were put at the mercy of the kidnappers when the teachers simply left the school, without helping them. The Nigerian military and police have been searching for the girls for weeks, creating a confused and helpless impression in the process. There is still no reliable information today on the whereabouts of the abducted girls.
Goni, who was held by Boko Haram for two years, is more familiar than government forces with the countryside around Chibok and the kidnappers. One night, the terrorists raided his village, Kachalla Burari, shot and killed his uncle, who was lying in bed next to him, and dragged the boy into the Zambisa forest. He was kept in a camp, where he was forced to work for the murderous organization, fetching water, gathering firewood and cleaning weapons.
When the jihadists tried to force him to kill his own father, he managed to escape at the last minute. Since then, Goni has provided valuable information to Nigerian security forces and serves as a scout for an armed militia group. Boko Haram has put a bounty of 3 million Naira (13,500) on his head.
Goni is wearing a gray hoody and worn-out shoes, and there is a traditional decorative scar across his left cheek. He looks like an ordinary teenager, but his eyes are like those of an old man. He cannot read or write. Although he was raised as a Muslim and attended a madrassa school, his education there merely consisted of rote memorization of Koran verses.
His search team found the two abused girls a week after the kidnapping took place. They were lying, half-dead, in the sweltering heat, their hands tied to a tree. One of the militia members cut through the ropes with Goni's knife. The villagers were so frightened that they hardly dared leave their mud huts. The terrorists had stayed in the village for three days with their victims and killed four unruly girls, says Goni. "The bodies were buried somewhere. They didn't want to show us the graves."
'Bring Back Out Girls, Now and Alive!'
According to President Goodluck Jonathan, the violence in northern Nigeria has already claimed the lives of more than 12,000 people. The president, who has declared war on Boko Haram, assured the victims' families that he would do everything possible to rescue the girls.
Every day, between 50 and 100 protestors, mostly women of both the Muslim and Christian faith, gather around the dried up Unity Fountain in the capital Abuja. They don't think much of the president's pronouncements. They pray together and chant in unison: "Bring back our girls, now and alive."
In the midst of the crowd is a stocky woman wearing a green-and-yellow outfit and a bright red beret, with a megaphone in her hand: former Education Minister Obiageli Ezekwesili. "We are here because the government is not acting decisively enough," she says. "Our soldiers are not prepared for an asymmetrical war against terrorists. They are in urgent need of a new strategy."
Ezekwesili's criticism is relatively mild compared to that of opposition politician Nuhu Ribadu, who accuses the government and the armed forces of total failure. According to Ribadu, government forces are handicapped by their dilapidated equipment, poor discipline and chaotic communication. Morale is also poor among the soldiers, he adds, noting that their meager wage payments are often weeks overdue. "They are incapable of eliminating these criminals. On the contrary, corrupt officers are even collaborating with them."
'Mali Is a Warning Sign for Nigeria'
Nine generals are currently under investigation on charges of selling arms to Boko Haram. Six soldiers died in a May 13 attack on a combat patrol of the 7th Infantry Division, which has been deployed in the Chibok region. The Boko Haram attackers were familiar with the details of the unit's whereabouts, which they likely obtained from corrupt "employees" in the army. When the division commander subsequently visited the troops, his own soldiers shot at his vehicle, because they suspected him of cooperating with Boko Haram.
"This is the way it started in Mali, too," Ribadu warns. "The Islamists overran the army, and then younger officers who refused to accept the humiliations staged a coup." Mali, he explains, is a warning sign for Nigeria. "Our military reflects the rotten state of the entire country."
Nigeria is, by its own account, now Africa's largest economy. But the torn country of 170 million remains a giant with feet of clay. Even though Nigeria is the world's sixth-largest petroleum-exporting country, pumps are often empty at gas stations. The country has 95 universities, but about 40 percent of the population is illiterate. The government sends peacekeepers to other crisis-ridden countries, but it is incapable of defeating enemies on its own territory.
Amnesty International accuses the Nigerian military of serious human rights violations. It alleges that soldiers often kill innocent Muslims, and that anyone with a beard is immediately suspect in their eyes. Baba Goni, the teenager from Chibok, witnessed soldiers shooting and killing a man named Alaji, who he had identified as one of his abductors. According to Amnesty, more than 950 people died in military custody in the first half of 2013 alone. Suffocation and starvation are the most common causes of death in the overcrowded internment camps, where many prisoners die of the consequences of torture or bleed to death from gunshot wounds. One of the military prisons is nicknamed "Guantanamo."
In light of the current crisis, the martial law imposed on the states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe a year ago was extended last week. But this doesn't mean that the people there feel any safer. In fact, they fear the security forces as much as the terrorists. And the brutality of government soldiers is also driving more supporters and recruits, mainly young, unemployed men, into the arms of Boko Haram.
Corruption and Mass Poverty
Nigeria's problems are particularly evident in the overwhelmingly Muslim north. The breakdown of government, corruption that eats away at all institutions, mass poverty and the struggle over scarce resources only exacerbates existing ethnic and religious conflicts between Christians and Muslims. This creates an ideal breeding ground for the fundamentalists of Boko Haram, a terrorist group that began as a sect and is very popular today, because it condemns the moral decrepitude of the political elites and the duplicitous imams.
The United States, United Kingdom, Israel and China have also announced plans to provide military support. Washington wants to send 80 soldiers to Chad, US Air Force specialists trained to fly Predator reconnaissance zones, which will be used to search for the girls in northern Nigeria.
- Part 1: Boko Haram's Reign of Terror
- Part 2: 'Boko Haram Is an Evil Product of Hell'
Stay informed with our free news services:
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2014
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH
Click on the links below for more information about DER SPIEGEL's history, how to subscribe or purchase the latest issue of the German-language edition in print or digital form or how to obtain rights to reprint SPIEGEL articles.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Everything You Need to Know about DER SPIEGEL
- Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL
- A New Home in HafenCity: SPIEGEL's New Hamburg HQ
- Reprints: How To License SPIEGEL Articles
Corriere della Sera
MORE FROM SPIEGEL INTERNATIONAL
German PoliticsMerkel's Moves: Power Struggles in Berlin
World War IITruth and Reconciliation: Why the War Still Haunts Europe
EnergyGreen Power: The Future of Energy
European UnionUnited Europe: A Continental Project
Climate ChangeGlobal Warming: Curbing Carbon Before It's Too Late