By Marc Pitzke in New York
How the times change. After years of being kept classified, the "Pentagon Papers" can now be viewed at the United States National Archive in their entirety for the first time in history. In their original paper form, the papers filled 48 boxes. The electronically scanned versions of these historical data treasures comprise little more than six gigabytes -- enough to fill a tiny USB stick that is smaller than a finger.
The documents, however, make fascinating reading, at least for history fans. Leslie Gelb, the head of the secret working group responsible for the report and later head of the Council on Foreign Relations, assured then-Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in a Jan. 15, 1969 letter that his team had "checked and rechecked with ant-like diligence" the documents in the report.
The more than 7,000 pages in the file are stamped "Top Secret - Sensitive."
Four decades later, the US government is airing one of its most explosive secrets -- the "Pentagon Papers," the legendary top secret report on the Vietnam War. Anyone interested can read the papers that led to deep changes in US policy at the National Archive or in the libraries of the three presidents who were involved in the Vietnam War (John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon). The documents are also available for download from the National Archive homepage.
The release of the documents coincided with the 40th anniversary of the New York Times' publication of parts of the report -- the event which heralded the beginning of the end of the war and of the Nixon era. More than one-third of the entire package of documents remained classified at the time because Daniel Ellsberg, the whistleblower who had provided the New York Times with the material, wasn't able to and didn't want to copy everything.
Little Progress Since Pentagon Papers
Nixon's White House pursued Ellsberg as a traitor, but without success. In the end, a "whistleblower" prevailed over a Washington clique intent on covering things up. Despite this watershed moment, however, even generations later there has been little progress. Indeed, President Barack Obama has been even more merciless in his hunt for those who betray America's secrets than his predecessor George W. Bush.
A flood of recent government investigations into apparent information leaks have exposed Obama's insincerity regarding his pledge to create an "unprecedented level of openness in government" when he took office. Judith Ehrlich, the director of the Oscar-nominated, 2009 documentary film "The Most Dangerous Man in America" about Daniel Ellsberg, recently told London's Guardian newspaper that Obama is the "worst president in terms of his record on whistleblowing."
But Obama himself hasn't been entirely successful in cracking down on whistleblowers. The latest high-profile case failed spectacularly on Friday as the planned trial against Thomas Drake collapsed. The former employee of the National Security Agency had been accused of providing the Baltimore Sun newspaper with internal information about the agency's controversial wire-tapping practices. In the end, Drake agreed to accept misdemeanour charges for exceeding his authorized use of a government computer.
Setback for White House
The case was an embarrassing setback for the White House. But the government scored a victory in another case. In May 2010, a court convicted former FBI interpreter Shamai Leibowitz to 20 months in prison for providing government information to a blogger. Two further whistleblowers face prosecution: Stephen Kim, the former North Korea expert at the State Department, and former CIA agent Jeffrey Sterling. Kim is alleged to have supplied state secrets to Fox News. And Sterling stands accused of having provided information to author James Risen for his 2006 exposť "State of War."
The most prominent case in the US right now is that of soldier and suspected WikiLeaks informant Bradley Manning, who is being held at the army prison at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas. The Justice Department is also continuing its investigation into WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.
Under Obama, more whistleblowers are being held accountable than in all previous decades. Lucy Dalglish, executive director of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, told the Associated Press that the US government is going after whistleblowers "very, very aggressively."
Still, the Drake washout shows just how difficult it can be to prosecute whistleblowers. Drake had been threatened with up to 35 years in prison. But his trial collapsed only days before it was set to begin after the court accepted classified "top secret" documents as evidence. Federal prosecutors quickly withdrew the charges out of concern they would have to release classified material as part of the trial.
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