Herero Massacre: General's Descendants Apologize for 'Germany's First Genocide'
The family of a German colonial-era commander who ordered a massacre of Namibia's Herero tribe in 1904 has travelled to Namibia to apologize for what historians call Germany's first genocide. Some 65,000 Hereros were killed, but their descendants have scant hope of compensation.
Ovahimba women belonging to the Herero tribe attend the ceremony in Omaruru, Namibia on Sunday.
"We are ashamed of the terrible events that took place in Namibia a century ago," said Thilo von Trotha, 67, the spokesman for the family members. About a dozen Namibian police officers stood by to protect the delegation after the leader of the Herero, Kuaima Riruako, had warned that their lives might be in danger. The ceremony passed off peacefully, however.
'Streams of Blood'
The Hereros started a revolt on Jan. 12, 1904, killing 123 German traders, settlers and soldiers in protest at being expelled from their land, recruited into forced labour and compelled to give up their culture and tradition.
The German Reich quickly sent reinforcements under a new commander, Prussian General Lothar von Trotha, who was bent on annihilation. Trotha had a reputation for brutality and intransigence and his appointment as head of the German Schutztruppe, the Protection Force in what was then referred to as German Southwest Africa, was opposed unsuccessfully by a number of fellow commanders.
Thilo von Trotha addressing Herero representatives in Omaruru.
He issued a proclamation to the Herero people dated Oct. 2, 1904, that effectively amounted to a extermination order. In the letter, he offered 1,000 marks to anyone who delivered a Herero captain to German forces, and 5,000 marks for Herero leader Samuel Maherero. If the people did not comply, he warned he would banish them from the country.
"Within the German border every Herero with or without a rifle, with or without cattle will be shot, I won't take any more women and children, I will drive them back to their people or order them to be shot," he wrote. "These are my words to the Herero people." The proclamation was signed "The great general of the mighty German Kaiser."
The uprising culminated in a battle won by the well-trained and well-equipped Germans who had machine guns of the kind that would wreak havoc on World War I battlefields 10 years later. Thousands of Hereros were driven into the vast Omaheke desert which the Germans sealed off. Thousands died of thirst and starvation, the rest were sent to concentration camps.
While Germany has provided significant amounts of aid to Namibia over the years, it has stopped short of making a formal apology, to avoid exposing itself to billions of dollars in compensation claims from Herero descendents.
The Herero People's Reparations Corporation filed claims with a US court in 2001 for $2 billion in compensation from the German government and several companies, but its legal action was unsuccessful, partly because international conventions against genocide weren't agreed until decades later. The massacre happened too long ago for a civil lawsuit to be dealt with in a German court.
Stay informed with our free news services:
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2007
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH
Corriere della Sera
MORE FROM SPIEGEL INTERNATIONAL
German PoliticsMerkel's Moves: Power Struggles in Berlin
World War IITruth and Reconciliation: Why the War Still Haunts Europe
EnergyGreen Power: The Future of Energy
European UnionUnited Europe: A Continental Project
Climate ChangeGlobal Warming: Curbing Carbon Before It's Too Late