Pakistan's Swat Valley: In the Realm of Mullah Fazlullah
Once Pakistan's favorite tourist destination, Swat Valley is now ruled by a brutal Taliban group. The infamous commander Mullah Fazlullah has installed a Sharia emirate here, and President Musharraf has stood by and allowed it to happen.
A Pakistani pro-Taliban militant stands guard at a former police station in the Swat Valley.
They are all smilling, enjoying the view from the mountains, that range 2,000 meters high into the clear blue skies. The advertisement harks back to a time when the Swat Valley was considered the Switzerland of Pakistan. Islamabad's middle classes would tramp up the mountains in the summer and in winter they would whiz down the country's only ski slopes. "A paradise on earth," was Swat's motto.
The dangerous journey to Swat reveals a lot about how weak Musharraf and his army is in the conflict with the extremists inside the country -- and that they have been allowed to thrive for far too long. There are soldiers stationed just behind the advertising billboard. They are nervous, wear bullet-proof vests and helmets and have their weapons at the ready. "You must be mad to want to travel there," says the commander of the last checkpoint before the town of Mingora. "This is where Mullah Fazlullah's emirate begins." Anyone he doesnt like is killed.
It is a confession: The army has long lost control over the area north of here. A de-facto state within a state has been established. And a brutal commander is in complete control -- the infamous Mullah Maulana Fazlullah.
A Jihad against Musharraf
With its anarchy and lawlessness, the Swat Valley has come to symbolize Pakistan in the year 2007. This time it's not about the tribal areas, such as Waziristan along the Afghan border, where radical Islamists have been successfully undermining the power of the state. The Swat Valley is just a few hours drive from Islamabad. And Mullah Fazlullah's jihad is directed at Musharraf's regime. He and his fighters want to see a strict Islamist state, that is not oriented towards the US but to Sharia law. It is an enemy in the heart of the country -- one that Musharraf seems increasingly incapable of dealing with.
Only the remnants of Musharraf's authority are visible beyond the checkpoint. Army posts with their clay huts and corrugated iron have been deserted. The police stations are either empty or masked militants with Kalashnikovs lounge on the steps. The driver doesnt want to stop anywhere. He is only willing to embark on the journey after lengthy discussions and taking the precaution of dressing in shalwar kameez clothing, the traditional garb that resembles a night shirt. Like everyone here, he is afraid. The journey is perilous -- even journalists have been known to be beheaded on Fazlullah's orders, on suspicion that they were spies.
The history of the takeover of the Swat Valley began long before Musharraf started to raise the alarm a few months ago. It has been more than two years since 28-year-old Koran student Fazlullah built a madrassa in Iman Deri, a small pretty town near the Swat River. People in Mingora know the young man who now has a long black gray beard that reaches his belly and who drags his right leg because of a past polio infection.
He went to school in Mingora in the 1990s, but dropped out. Like many directionless youths in Pakistan, he ended up in an Islamic school or madrassa. That's when Fazlullah joined the "Movement for the Imposition of Islamic Laws," and made no bones about his aims.
"He is a simple man," says his former teacher. "But that is exactly how he is able to win over the people here." The villagers say that the construction work on the madrassa went amazingly quickly. Hundreds of volunteers helped and money was no problem. Masked armed guards began to patrol the red mud-brick building and checked visitors. Every week more and more men arrived with weapons. The creation of the Fazlullah militia had begun.
There are more heroic stories in the Swat Valley about the young Fazlullah than a 90-year-old man could be expected to have experienced. There are no photos of him, but fearful locals still tell tales of his brutal, inhuman face or the way he gallops by on a black horse. In Afghanistan, they whisper, he fought against the Russians. And then he sat with the leader of the Sharia movement in prison. The fact that this is all highly unlikely is immaterial. Fazlullah has succeeded in doing what every Taliban leader aspires to -- he has become a myth, and one that spreads fear.
- Part 1: In the Realm of Mullah Fazlullah
- Part 2: 'The Government Has Let Things Go'
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2007
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH