Science vs. Religion: Has Darwin Failed?
Human beings, animals and plants were not created by God, but are the result of evolution. Charles Darwin published this revolutionary theory 150 years ago. It's been a huge success with scientists, but it was never popular. Is the human brain wired toward supernatural belief?
The news sounded like an important breakthrough. "Scientists at the University of Oxford have found a solution to the puzzle known as 'Darwin's dilemma,'" the London Geological Society recently reported. Charles Darwin, who would have been 200 years old this year, published his epochal work "The Origin of Species" 150 years ago. In his book he admitted, with refreshing frankness, that he could not explain why no fossils could be found from the time before the Cambrian period, which began about 542 million years ago.
Something astonishing seemed to happen in the Cambrian. For more than 3 billion years, or so it seemed, life on earth had developed at an almost imperceptible pace. Then, in a relatively short period of time -- according to the fossil record -- there was an explosive multiplication of species. Where tiny, non-skeletal beings had populated the oceans, predators armed with teeth suddenly faced off against armor-clad prey.
The so-called Cambrian explosion was long a mystery to scientists. The religious community points to it as evidence of the existence of God. How, they ask, if not by the hand of the Almighty, could such a complex diversity have arisen within such a short time?
Despite this initial riddle, Darwin's revolutionary theory that modern life forms were the result of millions of years of natural selection was accepted quickly by scientists. The prevailing conviction that animal and plant species were forever unchangeable had been shattered. Of course, for Darwin's contemporaries, the conclusion that humans and apes had common ancestors was even more outrageous. His theory of evolution was branded a threat to the political, religious and social order from the start.
In the meantime it has become the strongest model to explain animated nature that has ever existed, but its success in the scientific world stands in stark contrast to its continued lack of acceptance among large parts of the general public. The majority of humans, even now, stubbornly refuse to accept the obvious.
"God is dead," Nietzsche wrote in 1882. He was describing the loss of appreciation for the sacred. But the philosopher's conclusion was apparently somewhat premature. Faith is blossoming, not just in Third World countries with poor levels of education and in Islamic theocracies, but also in industrialized nations. The US magazine American Spectator, writing about the "myth of the secular West," calls it a "complete mystery" that so many scholars and journalists believe the people of the West are, for the most part, adherents to Darwin's theory. Opinion polls have painted an unchanging picture for years -- that religions have managed to fend off all assaults by natural science. Even now.
The Rise of Religion and the New Atheists
According to a survey completed by the European Commission in early 2005, 52 percent of the citizens in the European Union believe in God. About one in four Europeans stated that while not believing in a personal God, they did believe in "a sort of spirit or life force," and only 18 percent outed themselves as non-believers. Germany ranked in the middle of countries surveyed, with 47 percent of respondents declaring a belief in God. According to the 2005 study, 25 percent of Germans said they believed in a higher power other than God, while another 25 percent believed in neither.
In an international comparison, these numbers still place Germany and the EU among the world's most secular regions. In the United States, the Gallup Organization regularly polls people on questions of God and science. According to the most recent result only 14 percent believe Homo sapiens arrived in the world as a sole result of evolution. Thirty-six percent believe evolution did take place, but under the guidance of God. The largest group, comprising 44 percent, believes the Almighty himself created man in his current form -- and that this occurred no more than 10,000 years ago.
Even in Darwin's native Britain, a majority of citizens no longer adheres to the theory of evolution, as a 2006 survey showed. Only 48 percent of Britons claimed to believe in it. More than 40 percent would like to see the Biblical story of creation taught in government-run schools -- and not just in religious studies, but also in biology class. One in four teachers on the government's payroll agree.
But nowhere is the battle between supporters and opponents of Darwin's theory as heated as in the United States. On the one side are creationists, who for some years have promoted a worldview they call "intelligent design," in which God created man and all life. They are opposed by the overwhelming majority of scientists and an increasingly vocal atheist movement, which views organized religion as little more than a childish belief that rises to the level of a public danger. A large number of books that discuss religion, in terms ranging from the levelheaded to the irate, have made it onto US bestseller lists in recent years.
Between the two fronts are those who are either uninterested in the issue or believe that science and religion could be reconciled, perhaps even complement each other. Their favorite argument is that religion does not, in fact, seek to make any scientific claims, while science is only interested in mapping the galaxies and analyzing genes, avoiding ethical and ideological questions.
So maybe it's just a big misunderstanding? Hardly. Some academics like to point out that certain questions are beyond the scope of science, such as the ultimate source of the universe and whether there is a higher purpose to its existence. But even in these metaphysical realms, there is overlap. "Religions make existence claims, and this means scientific claims," says Richard Dawkins, biologist, bestselling author and figurehead of the so-called New Atheists. "A universe with a supernatural presence would be a fundamentally and qualitatively different kind of universe from one without."
- Part 1: Has Darwin Failed?
- Part 2: An 'Empty, Hollow, Spin-Doctored Sham'
© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2009
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH