SPIEGEL Interview With Danish Artist Olafur Eliasson 'Museums Are Too Elitist'
Part 2: 'I Do Want to Participate in the World'
Eliasson: My real subject is people. I am ultimately fascinated by the question: What is reality for us? We have all learned that there is no single true reality. But how do we get our bearings, and how are we aligned? Even the idea of a reality "construct" is only a construction, after all.
One of Eliasson's four New York waterfall installations will stream from the Brooklyn Bridge this summer.
Eliasson: Reality is confusing. That's what I want to demonstrate. There is no fixed interpretation of my works. Everyone experiences and understands them in his own way.
SPIEGEL: And now you're supposed to create something geared mainly toward tourists. The city of New York, with the help of private sponsors, has raised $15 million (9.4 million) for your waterfalls, which are expected to attract millions of people. Mayor Michael Bloomberg hopes that you will generate at least $55 million (34.4 million) in tourism revenue for the city. Do you like such cost-benefit calculations?
Eliasson: No. Of course, I am interested in reaching as many people as possible, and I know I will have to perform a balancing act with this project. It will be an event. But statements like Bloomberg's can lead to people looking at the work with a certain sense of anticipation. They become biased and see it as a tourist attraction, no longer as a work of art. I have discussed this with the mayor several times, and I think he understands it now. His press releases have improved considerably.
SPIEGEL: You could be seen as the new Christo. He transformed New York's Central Park into a sea of banners.
SPIEGEL: But you too have crossed the boundary into commercialism. For instance, you designed an "Art Car" for BMW.
Eliasson: Well, I do want to participate in the world, as it is. But look at it more closely: My art isn't exactly market-friendly. Who buys a rainbow?
SPIEGEL: Still, do you have the feeling sometimes that you are getting your fingers dirty? Proximity to business is frowned upon in the art world.
Eliasson: This world of art and of museums can also be unbelievably elitist. But it isn't a parallel world, where the laws of the market are somehow suspended. Artists don't live in a space apart from politics and the market, and in many cases they even have very good strategies to market themselves. It would be hypocritical to claim otherwise. But believe me, my fingers are clean.
SPIEGEL: More than two million people went to see your "Weather Project," a colossal sun sculpture, at the Tate Modern in London four years ago last winter. The minute an artist reaches large numbers of people, he is accused of going mainstream. Is that a problem for you?
Eliasson: Appealing to many people isn't a problem for me. I don't happen to be one of those people who climb up on their avant-garde stools and look down on others. We should stop nurturing this naïve cliché that says artists are beings from another planet. It wasn't God himself who hung art in museums. And yet the museum directors create precisely this detached impression. It would be much more honest to talk about the many connections and influences, because they exist. The market exists, and so do ideologies.
SPIEGEL: You yourself are someone who leaves nothing to chance, right?
Art Car for BMW: "My art isn't exactly market-friendly."
SPIEGEL: People spent hours lying on the ground, gazing at your artificial sun, creating spontaneous happenings every day. Were you surprised by this effect?
Eliasson: Of course. My works can't be compared to those of a painter, who can complete his paintings in a studio, adding a brushstroke here and there. My work is either done on-site or not at all -- no matter how much money and effort are expended. I like these experiments, not just in museums, but also in the public sphere. That's where we must take far greater risks, because it's also where we reach the largest number of people.
SPIEGEL: Do you now know what fascinated so many people about your sun? Was it beauty?
Eliasson: Would that be so bad? I like beauty, but perhaps it means something completely different to me than to you. That's the point.
SPIEGEL: What happened to that legendary installation?
Eliasson: It's in my basement.
SPIEGEL: Meaning that it's still available for sale?
Eliasson: Yes, in principle. But you should enter into those negotiations with my gallery owners, who don't have much to do otherwise. If you do buy the work, if you even have that much space, you should know it would no longer be the same work that it was at the Tate Modern.
SPIEGEL: Because it would be missing the fog machines you installed at the time?
Eliasson: No, because each work changes its character as it changes locations. Many artists believe their works are completely autonomous. It's a point of view that we've taken from industry. We assume that a product, a car, for example, is perceived in the same way everywhere, irrespective of the location and culture. But there are differences, even with cars, and much more so in the case of art, especially new art, for which we cannot resort to existing interpretations.
SPIEGEL: Would the Mona Lisa no longer be the same painting if it were hanging somewhere else, and not in the Louvre?
Eliasson: Yes. The importance of the Mona Lisa goes far beyond someone having applied paint to a canvas. It also feeds on the centuries-long interaction with the painting. The Mona Lisa has its history, and so does the Louvre. The way we perceive something depends on many factors.
SPIEGEL: Your art, which is in tune with nature, is often associated with your native Scandinavia and its landscape.
Eliasson: Yes, but this relationship should not be understood as a key to my art. The circumstances under which I grew up in Denmark are more important than nature: in a society that was shaped by pseudo-Protestantism, and by the ideals of the middle class and the welfare state. The individual was less important than the community. Recognizing this, identifying it as a source of tension, has influenced me. Besides, it is also typically Scandinavian to think: I am nothing, and nature is everything. Of course, I too had this attitude. My parents are Icelanders, and Iceland, which I visited regularly as a child, is a unique natural experience.
SPIEGEL: Do you think in German, Danish or Icelandic?
Eliasson: Mostly in English in the last few hours, because we talked about New York a lot. But I'm completely untalented when it comes to languages. I like the German language. It's like a Scandinavian landscape: vast, generous and beautiful.
SPIEGEL: Mr. Eliasson, thank you for this interview.
Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan
- Part 1: 'Museums Are Too Elitist'
- Part 2: 'I Do Want to Participate in the World'