The Legacy of Modernism: Celebrating 90 Years of Bauhaus
The legendary Bauhaus movement turns 90 this year and the anniversary is being marked by exhibitions from Tokyo to New York. The school was founded by a young architect, Walter Gropius, who wanted to shape products for the future and create a more just society.
In times of gloom and doom, there is often a need for the charismatic energy of great ideas. Back in 1919 German architect Walter Gropius regarded the miserable period following the end of the World War I as a "catastrophe of world history." His response was a bold and yet surprisingly pragmatic utopian vision -- the Bauhaus. By establishing this new kind of art school he managed to create a cultural wonder that continues to have a profound impact to this day.
This year marks the 90th anniversary of the founding of the school: A series of events and exhibitions are poised to remind us that, without Gropius, the world of architecture and design would look very different today.
Gropius, who was 35 at the time, was determined to turn his back on tradition and yet, in a thoroughly old-fashioned way, he also sought to assume social responsibility. On March 20, 1919, he submitted an application to establish an academy in the city of Weimar. The permit for the "National Bauhaus in Weimar" arrived on April 12. In the meantime, the architect had written a sweeping manifesto. It was to mark the beginning of a virtually worldwide aesthetic upheaval -- in short, a true revolution.
From the beginning the Bauhaus proved to be an exciting art school, an academy that was intent on being close to real life rather than a lofty academic institution. The board of trustees, which consisted of Gropius' circle of friends, soon included Albert Einstein, and amongst its instructors could be counted some of the leading painters of the age like Josef Albers, Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Oskar Schlemmer. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was the third director of the Bauhaus, went on to become a legend in architectural history.
And with good reason: After all, it was the school that shaped the image of the modern age. For the Bauhaus it was the artist's supreme duty to abandon old habits. "The first act of the Bauhaus was to tear down all established opinions … Suddenly people discovered that life could be viewed from an entirely different perspective," wrote Lisbeth Oestreicher, a Bauhaus graduate.
That modernist legacy is undeniable. To this day, the Bauhaus serves as a kind of benchmark for those who belong to the avant-garde in art, design, architecture and urban planning. Furthermore, it forms the basis for modern-day Germany's reputation and self-image as a place of artistic progress.
Laying Claim to Bauhaus Legacy
Over a 14 year period, Weimar, Dessau and Berlin were the three school's three bases. Then, in 1933 it was finally defeated by the opponents of modernist culture. Today, in an overdue homage to the Bauhaus, the sites in Weimar and Dessau are designated UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites.
The Bauhaus survived as a legend, kept alive by the work of the teachers and students who fled after 1933. An independent modernist Bauhaus movement developed in Israel. A New Bauhaus was opened in Chicago in the 1930s, and New York would be a different city today without the steel-and-glass aesthetic imported from Germany. Eventually, the purism of Bauhaus became too dogmatic for the playful postmodern movement of the 1980s, when architects sought to rebel against a legend that had become larger than life.
In postwar divided Germany, both the East and the West laid claim to the Bauhaus legacy. Later on there were critics who argued that the ugly apartment blocks and prefabricated buildings were a direct result of the Bauhaus vision of mass-production housing. But these attempts to demystify the Bauhaus never really succeeded.
In 2009, Bauhaus's anniversary, it feels like everyone is glorifying the Bauhaus, celebrating the school as a laboratory of seminal product design. It is being declared a big, fun-loving studio, which almost casually spat out one design innovation after the next, bringing aesthetics to ordinary life. But in reality it was far more complex, contradictory and, most of all, more momentous than its reputation.
The real feat achieved by Gropius and his cohorts was to have recognized and exposed the sociopolitical and moral power of architecture and design. They wanted to exert "effective influence" on "general conditions," fashion a more just world and turn all of this into a "vital concern of the entire people."
The notion of architecture as being political -- because it concretely designs living conditions and as such can cause controversy and opposition -- is a notion that goes right back to the Bauhaus.
Of course, this desire to make the world a better place is now often considered a flaw. But maybe it is time to go back to this original spirit. The successor institutions to the school -- the Bauhaus Foundation Dessau and the Bauhaus University of Weimar -- could be well placed to return to the Bauhaus revolutionary approach and spirit.
In Dessau, at least, the anniversary year is being used for a new beginning. Berlin architect Philipp Oswalt, who will assume the position of director in March, is calling for more commitment and for the school to become involved in society.
The Creation of an Elite
Back in 1919, hardly anyone could have predicted that the Bauhaus would become an object of eternal fascination. At the end of World War I, the German art world was frozen in a state of trauma. Those who had escaped the trenches alive were struggling to survive financially, and the future seemed politically charged and economically uncertain.
Then the Bauhaus arrived as a glimmer of hope. Gropius considered the prewar concept of the artist as a fun-loving bohemian to be naïve. He sought to establish a foundation that could support painters, designers and architects. In his vision, the trades were to be the basis of all artistic endeavors, and in the school he established workshops and called his professors masters and his students apprentices and journeymen.
His goal was to bring together intellect, talent and energy. All of the products that were created at the Bauhaus -- every chair, lamp, door handle or mural -- seems to contain this nucleus of confidence. The charisma that the Bauhaus continues to exert today stemmed both from this confidence and the fact that the school attracted highly ambitious and hopeful young people.
Most of Gropius's students were poor and hungry -- both literally and figuratively. They were hungry for life and knowledge, for aesthetic experiment and physical pleasure. They also lacked everything, from working materials to clothing to lodging. The school's canteen, opened in October 1919, developed into one of the most important places in the building and the academy planted its own vegetable gardens. Despite these modest circumstances, the students and teachers developed a tremendous self-confidence, a sense of being part of an elite group, or at least a group of people who were the exception to the rule.
- Part 1: Celebrating 90 Years of Bauhaus
- Part 2: A Reawakened Belief in the Machine
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