SPIEGEL Interview with Saudi Arabia's Foreign Minister "The Koran Doesn't Oppose Women Driving"
With Saudi Arabia's King Fahd seriously ill, questions about his successor and about Saudi political reform abound. SPIEGEL ONLINE spoke with Saudi Foreign Minister Saud al-Feisal about the King's medical condition, women drivers and Saudi citizens fighting with the insurgency in Iraq.
Saud al-Feisal has been Saudi Arabia's foreign minister since 1975.
Your highness, when the news of King Fahd's serious illness was made public, the Riad stock market fell by more than 5 percent and updates on his health were monitored the world over. Is the Saudi kingdom faced with a period of instability?
Saud al-Feisal: The stock market is not a good indicator for the political stability of our country. It rises and falls by just as much with each change in the price of oil. The doctors are satisfied with the medical condition of the king and he will be able to leave the hospital within the next few days. Anyway, the succession is already clear; everybody knows who the next king of Saudi Arabia will be.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Crown Prince Abdullah, you mean. But after that, you yourself are considered a possible successor -- and Washington would welcome such an eventuality.
Saud al-Feisal: Those who consider that to be a serious possibility have little understanding of the political realities in the Middle East.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Saudi Arabia has continually delayed implementing urgently needed reforms. Why is it going so slowly and why are reformers having such a hard time of it?
Saud al-Feisal: Saudi Arabia is changing at an incredibly quick pace, but we can't allow ourselves any experiments. The primary goal of the government is to strengthen the inner cohesion of our country. Even the western democracies didn't develop within just a few years. It took centuries, for example, until Great Britain gave women the vote.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: The nation's founder, Abd al-Asis Ibn Saud, and your father, King Feisal, introduced girl's schools, telephones and television against the opposition of the conservatives. But today, the government can't even seem to push the concept of driver's licenses for women through.
King Fahd is ill, the royal succession is clear.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Do you, personally, support the idea?
Saud al-Feisal: I am for it. Not just for philosophical and political reasons, but also for practical ones. It is not a religious question. Nowhere in the Koran is it written that women are not allowed to drive cars. In any case, there are many other -- and more important -- rights that have to be granted to women; like the right to vote, for example or the right to follow the career path they wish. There is also nothing in the Koran that would speak against these reforms either.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: In mid-May, religious judges sentenced three Saudi intellectuals to six, seven and nine years in prison because they demanded that Saudi Arabia be transformed into a constitutional monarchy. Human rights groups are outraged.
Saud al-Feisal: I cannot speak about the judges in detail, but I was in fact disturbed by the fact that human rights observers were expelled from the court room during this trial. The federal prosecutor who was representing the government in the case pled for them to be admitted as observers.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Does that not clearly show that the religious authorities in Saudi Arabia have the last word today?
Saud al-Feisal: The power of religion is not a negative power to us; rather, it is, as Crown Prince Abdullah repeatedly points out, a power that we must use in order to keep together our society. Where we do have a problem is with takfir -- in other words, the tendency to denigrate people who think differently as heretics, as apostates ...
SPIEGEL ONLINE: ... and by declaring holy war against them. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Saudi residents are currently in Iraq fighting for the jihad. Does that alarm you?
U.S. President George W. Bush with Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdullah.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Why is it that so many young Saudis turn their backs on their homeland to fight in foreign wars as Mujahedeen?
Saud al-Feisal: It is related to the images they see every day that come out of Iraq and Palestine. They consider what they see there to be an unjust war against Muslims. And in this part of the world, the principle of justice is of fundamental meaning. If a Saudi Arabian feels that he is being treated fairly, according to the same standards that are also valid for everyone else, he will always accept it. However, if he feels an injustice is being inflicted upon him, he will battle against it until his death. These days, you can't just proceed against terrorism using the military. The problems in Iraq and Palestine have been thrusted upon us. They must be solved politically.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Twenty three years ago, King Fahd proposed a peace plan for the Israel-Palestine conflict. Nothing ever became of it.
Saud al-Feisal: There will be no peace as long as long as the conflicting parties don't make compromises and move towards each other. From where we are at today, we consider it to be Israel's move.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Israel is now going to withdraw from the Gaza Strip.
Saud al-Feisal: That could be a good first step, if it is followed by others. But it will not be enough if other problems are not solved -- especially the Israeli settlements in the West Bank.
Interview conducted by Volkhard Windfuhr and Bernhard Zand