French Philosopher Finkielkraut 'There Is a Clash of Civilizations'

French society is under threat, argues philosopher Alain Finkielkraut in a controversial new book. The conservative spoke to SPIEGEL about what he sees as the failure of multiculturalism and the need for better integration of Muslim immigrants.

Interview Conducted by and Romain Leick

Alain Finkielkraut is one of France's most controversial essayists. His new book, "L'Identité Malheureuse" ("The Unhappy Identity," Éditions Stock ), has been the subject of heated debate. It comes at a time when France finds itself in the midst of an identity crisis. But rather than framing things from a social or political perspective, Finkielkraut explores what he sees as a hostile confrontation between indigenous French people and immigrants. He was interviewed in his Parisian apartment on the Left Bank.

SPIEGEL: Mr. Finkielkraut, are you unhappy with today's France?

Finkielkraut: I am pained to see that the French mode of European civilization is threatened. France is in the process of transforming into a post-national and multicultural society. It seems to me that this enormous transformation does not bring anything good.

SPIEGEL: Why is that? Post-national and multicultural sounds rather promising.

Finkielkraut: It is presented to us as the model for the future. But multiculturalism does not mean that cultures blend. Mistrust prevails, communitarianism is rampant -- parallel societies are forming that continuously distance themselves from each other.

SPIEGEL: Aren't you giving in here to the right-wingers' fears of demise?

Finkielkraut: The lower middle classes -- the French that one no longer dares to call Français de souche (ethnic French) -- are already moving out of the Parisian suburbs and farther into the countryside. They have experienced that in some neighborhoods they are the minority in their own country. They are not afraid of the others, but rather of becoming the others themselves.

SPIEGEL: But France has always been a country of immigrants.

Finkielkraut: We are constantly told that immigration is a constitutive element of the French identity. But that's not true. Labor migration began in the 19th century. It was not until after the bloodletting of World War I that the borders were largely opened.

SPIEGEL: Immigration has had more of a formative influence on France than on Germany.

Finkielkraut: Immigration used to go hand-in-hand with integration into French culture. That was the rule of the game. Many of the new arrivals no longer want to play by that rule. If the immigrants are in the majority in their neighborhoods, how can we integrate them? There used to be mixed marriages, which is crucial to miscegenation. But their numbers are declining. Many Muslims in Europe are re-Islamizing themselves. A woman who wears the veil effectively announces that a relationship with a non-Muslim is out of the question for her.

SPIEGEL: Aren't many immigrants excluded from mainstream society primarily for economic reasons?

Finkielkraut: The left wanted to resolve the problem of immigration as a social issue, and proclaimed that the riots in the suburbs were a kind of class struggle. We were told that these youths were protesting against unemployment, inequality and the impossibility of social advancement. In reality we saw an eruption of hostility toward French society. Social inequality does not explain the anti-Semitism, nor the misogyny in the suburbs, nor the insult "filthy French." The left does not want to accept that there is a clash of civilizations.

SPIEGEL: The anger of these young people is also stirred up by high unemployment. They are turning their backs on society because they feel excluded.

Finkielkraut: If unemployment is so high, then immigration has to be more effectively controlled. Apparently there is not enough work for everyone. But just ask the teachers in these troubled neighborhoods -- they have major difficulties teaching anything at all. Compared to the rappers and the dealers, the teachers earn so ridiculously little that they are viewed with contempt. Why should the students make an effort to follow in their footsteps? There are a large number of young people who don't want to learn anything about French culture. This refusal makes it harder for them to find work.

SPIEGEL: These neighborhoods that you speak of, have you even seen them firsthand?

Finkielkraut: I watch the news; I read books and studies. I have never relied on my intuition.

SPIEGEL: In the US the coexistence of communities works better. The Americans don't have this European adherence to a national uniform culture.

Finkielkraut: The US sees itself as a country of immigration, and what is impressive about this truly multicultural society is the strength of its patriotism. This was particularly evident after the attacks of September 11, 2001. In France, however, the opposite could be seen after the attacks on French soldiers and Jewish children in Toulouse and Montauban last year: Some schoolchildren saw Mohamed Merah, the assailant, as a hero. Something like that would be unthinkable in the US. American society is a homeland for everyone. I don't think that many children of immigrants here see it that way.

SPIEGEL: America makes it easy for new arrivals to feel like Americans. Does France place the hurdles too high?

Finkielkraut: France prohibits students from wearing headscarves at school. This is also for the benefit of all Muslims who don't want a religious cage for themselves, for their daughters and wives. France is a civilization, and the question is what it means to participate in it. Does this mean the natives have to make themselves extremely small so the others can easily spread themselves out? Or does it mean passing on the culture that one possesses?

SPIEGEL: But this has worked for a long time. The Italians, Spaniards, Poles and European Jews had no difficulties becoming French patriots. Why is this no longer working?

Finkielkraut: Why is there today such aggression toward the West in the Islamic world? Some say that France was a colonial power, which is why those who were colonized could not be happy. But why has Europe been subjected to this massive immigration from former colonies over the past half a century? France still has to pay for the sins of colonialism and settle its debt to those who vilify it today.

SPIEGEL: You yourself are the child of immigrants, the progeny of a persecuted family. Does your personal will to integrate explain your radical commitment to the values of the Republic?

Finkielkraut: I defend these values because I probably owe more to my schooling than do the Français de souche, the hereditary French. French traditions and history were not laid in my cradle. Anyone who does not bring along this heritage can acquire it in l'école républicaine, the French school system. It has expanded my horizons and allowed me to immerse myself in French civilization.

SPIEGEL: And made you into its apologist?

Finkielkraut: I can speak and write more openly than others precisely because I am not a hereditary Frenchman. The natives easily allow themselves to be unnerved by the prevailing discourse. I don't have such complexes.

SPIEGEL: How do you define this French civilization that you speak of?

Finkielkraut: I recently reread a book by the admirable Russian writer Isaac Babel. The story takes place in Paris. The narrator is in a hotel and at night he hears the lovemaking sounds of the couples next door. Babel writes: This has nothing to do with what one hears in Russia -- it's much more fiery. Then his French friend responds: We French created women, literature and cuisine. No one can take that from us.

SPIEGEL: Those are idealized clichés that nations create for themselves.

Finkielkraut: But it is true, or at least it was in the past. France can't allow itself to bask in its own glory. But it has evidence of its civilization, just like Germany -- it has its sights, its squares, its cafés, its wealth of literature and its artists. We can be proud of these ancestors, and we have to prove that we are worthy of them. I regret that Germany -- for reasons that are understandable -- has broken with this pride in its past. But I believe that German politicians who speak of Leitkultur -- the guiding national culture -- are right. The Leitkultur does not create an insurmountable barrier to newcomers.

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td2554 12/06/2013
1. tell me about your childhood
There are, of course, a lot of previously migrant French doing quite well in France, and their integration process should not be seen in too dark a light. However, it is true that the current political controversy on these matters is bordering on the ridiculous or exasperating, as Mr Finkielkraut points out. As an example, here is a former football player saying France should seek inspiration in Mandela : The comparison between France and apartheid is obviously ridiculous. But the problem is that it is quite typical of the way a growing fraction of the left handles the issue... Besides, Mr Finkielkraut is quite right to point out that political leaders from both the right and left seem to be planning to be renouncing the way France used to handle integration. For example, by using 'affirmative action' policies for access at top universities, in direct contradiction with their organisation dating back to the French Revolution, based on meritocracy alone. And such breaches with tradition and history seem to be devised without deep thinking about the consequences, in a very shallow media conversation. It seems to me this is just the aftershock of the riots in november 2005, through 2 presidency. Hopefully, things will settle down and become a bit more rational. Likewise, the last question of the interview, while pointing accurately to current issues, seems to see the situation of France in too dark a light. The problems facing France, or other countries (such as pension equilibrium in Germany) have to be dealt with, but should be manageable. However, it is also true that a part of France's "identity crisis" is linked with the European construction, and the irritating mania of importing "models" or reforms from other countries. This mania seems to be considerably less prevalent in Germany than in France, which probably also accounts for Germany's current better psychological health.
Newspeak 12/06/2013
2. ...
Finkielkraut states that everyone in France has the chance to benefit from the French education system, but that's, among most of the other statements, not true. The French education system is elitist and favours the wealthy, it is not at all about equal chances. And this known for long time and plain obvious. So many other statements are not true, either. The US also had people who acclaimed the 9/11 attacks, the US is not really multicultural but also is more favouring the ghettos, the little italys etc. There are even forms of hidden Apartheid, when it comes, for instance, for the restructuring of election regions such that the white politicians are favoured to the african-american or latino ones. The other thing is, that patriotism and nationalism are no good for anything than creating hatred. I do not give a f... about it, to be german. I only want to live my life in freedom and for this it does not matter if I am called a german or me living in germany. I could be equally satisfied with any other nationality that respects my individual rights. To insist on patriotism is close to being a Nazi, nothing less than that. A more "cultured" Nazi, but a Nazi anyhow. Stop it!
albertos 12/07/2013
3. Right but pessimist
Mr Finkielkraut is right in his understanding of the cultural problem. However he is extremely pessimist. As a matter of fact most French Muslims are integrating, despite of the so called "personal islamization" Indeed despite what Finkelkraut claims, the riots of 2005 were more social than Islamic. The Law of Laicite was passed without problems, the burqa law was passed without problems . NO riots no nothing, and that was a law against Muslims, (despite the fact that it was rationalized as a law in favor of 'decent' Islam.) Slowly but steady ,European societies are awaking up of the multicultural flaw. Even in Britain, there is a growing debate on sharia courts, and on segregation on schools that Muslims wish to implant. The state is tackling this problem , timidly by the time being, but state intervention will grow, because as Camerun, Hollande and others political leaders of left and right understand... if they do not it, the Radical Right will take over. No comparison with America. The 'Muslims' of America are the Latinos. The difference is that Latinos do not challenge the American ethos. Muslims do challenge. However, as I said, most of them are integrating and the rest will understand the rules of the game. With other immigrations, the process of integration worked smoother. With Muslims it works harder. However, everybody knows that the Radical Right is lurking.
atheist_crusader 12/07/2013
4. optional
>>> The automatic right to French citizenship by being born on French territory makes many French people feel uncomfortable these days, because the act of wanting to be French gets lost in this process.
phreak123 12/07/2013
5. optional
Now that's something new. Isn't there a book by Samuel P. Huntington called exactly the same published in 1996?
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