The Fascism Test How Much Mussolini Is There in Donald Trump?

Can Donald Trump be called a fascist? His political rhetoric makes it tempting to lump him into that category. That, though, wouldn't be helpful.

An anti-Trump sign in Atlanta, Georgia
EPA/JOHN SPINK/Atlanta Journal-Constitution

An anti-Trump sign in Atlanta, Georgia

If Donald Trump were a fascist and his regime governed as such, the likely outcome would be that America's true champions of democracy would ultimately dare a revolt in order to defend their freedom. The rest of the West, which stands universally for freedoms like democracy and human rights, would also have no choice but to support this insurrection, even if it turned into a civil war.

So is he a fascist? "Yes, a Trump presidency would bring fascism to America," conservative Washington Post columnist Robert Kagan wrote in May. "Trump is a fascist," SPIEGEL ONLINE columnist Jakob Augstein recently offered. "Trump is a media figure and a fascist of our times," Fred Turner, a communications researcher at Stanford University recently wrote for the German weekly Die Zeit. "This is surely the way fascism can begin," New Yorker Editor in Chief David Remnick wrote the day after Trump's election.

Fascism is both a historical and political term. Historically, it describes regimes from the first half of the 20th century in Europe that were authoritarian and had a high propensity for violence. Politically, it has been deployed ever since as a battle cry used to lump opponents into the same camp as Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in an effort to discredit and silence them. Many perfectly democratic politicians have been blasted as fascists by the left without the slightest justification.

That is not what is happening here. Trump's unscrupulous behavior during the election campaign, his racism and his threat to jail Hillary Clinton (though apparently withdrawn this week) go well beyond what is acceptable in a democracy. No comparisons can be made to George W. Bush or to Ronald Reagan -- Trump is in a category of his own. Unless, of course, what we are seeing is fascism.

What Is Fascism?

If it is fascism, then it would be a disaster on a global scale. See above. But if it isn't fascism, it would be a defamation of Trump's voters to call it that, akin to accusing them of helping to bring a fascist to power and potentially driving them away from democracy forever. That's why we must exercise great care when using the term. What is fascism and how does it relate to Trump? Or to the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany party, the Freedom Party of Austria, France's Front National or Viktor Orbán in Hungary?

In February, fascism expert Robert Paxton told the online magazine Slate that Trump "even looks like Mussolini in the way he sticks his lower jaw out." There are also parallels when it comes to his treatment of women: Mussolini was accused of being addicted to sex (a charge, it must be said, that was never levelled at Hitler). At the political level, though, comparison is difficult because there are so many different ideas about what truly constitutes fascism.

Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini
Getty Images

Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini

Action française, which formed at the end of the 19th century, is considered Europe's first fascist organization. Mussolini's Italy became the first fascist country, followed by Hitler's National Socialist Germany. Hungary, Croatia, Spain and Portugal also developed regimes during the 1930s and 1940s that had fascist elements. But the differences between Nazi Germany and Francisco Franco's Spain were so great that it's difficult to mention them in the same breath. Franco was a dictator, but didn't seek control of his subjects' thoughts and private lives. He wasn't an imperialist and he didn't seek to eradicate Judaism.

One early definition comes from German historian Ernst Nolte, who wrote a fair amount of nonsense in his career but who was an undisputed expert on fascism. He described it as such: "Fascism is anti-Marxism which seeks to destroy the enemy by the evolvement of a radically opposed and yet related ideology and by the use of almost identical and yet typically modified methods, always, however within the unyielding framework of national self-assertion and autonomy." It's a long-winded sentence and it provides little by way of orientation today, given that the Soviet Union no longer exists and Marxism is no longer considered be a real political adversary.

The Features of 'Ur-Fascism'

In the mid-1990s, when fear broke out over the possibility of a new fascism in Russia, novelist and scholar Umberto Eco defined elements of an "Ur-Fascism." The main question he posed at the time was this: Is there a way of defining fascism to make it recognizable during any period of time? Eco had experienced Mussolini's Italy as a boy and wrote about how he won an essay contest in 1942 on the subject "Should we die for the glory of Mussolini and the immortal destiny of Italy?" His answer? Yes, of course we should die. "I was a bright boy," he wrote in the 1995 article, which appeared in the New York Review of Books.

Should we die for Trump's glory and the immortal destiny of the United States? If this question is ever asked of American students, then they will, without a doubt, be living under fascism. In order to prevent his own experiences from happening again, Eco developed an early warning system including 14 different features that define Ur-Fascism -- a fascism test, as it were. It can be applied to Trump in terms of what is known about him politically, knowledge that comes primarily from the campaign.

"The first feature of Ur-Fascism is the cult of tradition," Eco begins. It has to do with the "primeval truth," the pseudo-religious "syncretistic" elements of a fascist movement. That's not a pronounced characteristic with Trump. He hails from the worlds of real estate development and reality TV, and thus far there haven't been any significant signs of religious or philosophical underpinnings to his movement. So that criterion, at least, does not apply.

Feature No. 2 is the "rejection of modernism," of capitalism, but also of Enlightenment and the Age of Reason -- the "Spirit of 1789," Eco wrote, in reference to the French Revolution. Trump is himself a capitalist, but politically he has shown a strong tendency towards the irrational and intemperate. No determination is yet possible on this point.

'Distrust of the Intellectual World'

Clearly applicable is feature three, which includes a "distrust of the intellectual world." In Trump's world, most intellectuals are considered to be part of the hated "Establishment."

Feature four for Eco is an entirely closed worldview that considers any disagreement to be "treason". That kind of worldview to which all must submit is not currently detectable in Trump.

In point five, he writes that Ur-Fascism "seeks for consensus by exploiting and exacerbating the natural fear of difference. The first appeal of a fascist or prematurely fascist movement is an appeal against the intruders. Thus Ur-Fascism is racist by definition." Here, it sounds as though Eco could have been writing directly about Trump, AfD or Marine Le Pen.

Point six states: "Ur-Fascism derives from individual or social frustration. That was why one of the most typical features of historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class, a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political humiliation and frightened by the pressure of lower social groups." It would be impossible to more aptly describe Trump's appeal to his voters.

Nationalism is the seventh point in Eco's list -- in other words, Trump in his purest form.

At the halfway point of Eco's symptoms of Ur-Fascism, it's clear that four of the criteria speak in favor of a fascism verdict, two are against it and one is undecided.


Discuss this issue with other readers!
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chardcastle999 11/24/2016
1. Fifty Ways To Insult American Deocracy
So Sad that you find a need to insult the desires of 62,000,000 Americans to cover up for your own failures.
turnipseed 11/24/2016
2. Trump, a Fascist?
Certainly many rhetorical traits of Trump on the campaign seem very Mussolini-like and many of the reactions of his inflamed audiences seem like those of Fascist audiences. But Fascism is a movement related to late 19th century fears of social radicalism and post 1917 fears of Bolshevism and disappointments with the results of World War I. Right-wing authoritarians movements exist now and will exist in the future, but using the label Fascist does little good in helping to understand them. Trump is no Fascist. He resembles more than anyone people like Attaturk and Berlusconi, not Mussolini or Hitler.
peter_gilbert 11/25/2016
3. Trump a fascist
We just endured 8 years with Obama with the camera looking up at his chin like Mussolini at the podium. Now that was true Fascism complete with Crony Capitalism every which way you look at it. We just hopefully were liberated.
wdavew 11/25/2016
4. Trump Fascist, Bernie, Communist
This article takes on a tough subject, and does a very good job of not only assessing the situation, but also exploring some of the possible solutions. I have one comment about the the quote from German Historian Ernst Notle. It may be more applicable than the article claims, because there are similarities between early 20th century communists/socialists and the 21st century American Progressive Movement. For instance, hatred of all organized religion and defense of the lower classes suffering under the autocratic rule of industrial capitalists/multinational corporations. Many American progressives are openly socialist. But most importantly, they preach that the Common Good overrules individual rights and private property, and this is the guiding principle behind the progressive movements solutions to climate change, education reform, poverty, etc... They highly favour the radical redistribution of all wealth, which is very similar to the more agrarian 20th century version of communal property. If we need to consider the possibility that Trump represents the beginnings of a new form of fascism, then we also need to consider that the radical left wing progressive movement in America could be a new form of the communist/socialist ideal. There are similarities between what is happening in America today and early 20th century Europe, where two extreme ideologies clashed. Not a strong analogy, but similar. Now this article is very astute in pointing out that today, these political parties do not promote outright violence, and they don't have military wings, unlike the communists and fascists of 20th century Europe. But 21st century warfare is economic, cyber, clandestine, guerilla, fifth column, where the soldier is safer than the civilian. Right or wrong, just look at the fringe media in America, they think the war has already started, with multinational corps and billionaires on both sides, Koch, Soros, Gates, etc... guiding public discourse through foundation grants and NGO's, and manipulating public opinion through propaganda via mainstream media, which they own. The theory is that while none of the actors are advocating the elimination of the opposing side, they do openly advocate the marginalization of their opponent, to the point that they are unemployable, and socially isolated.
paoloP 11/25/2016
How much of Mussolini? Very little indeed, if you know what he actually says (). Instead I have another question: how much Pravda and "dezinformatsiya" is there in all these newspapers ventilating about non-existent issue like the alt-right?
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