Germany's Latest Nazi Drama New 'Jud Süss' Flops as Faustian Tragedy
"Jud Süss -- Rise and Fall" tells the story of one man's Faustian pact with the Hitler regime. The film shows Ferdinand Marian as a tragic figure who gained and then lost everything after starring in Goebbels' pet project. But his biographer has berated the filmmakers for deviating from history and many critics have been scathing.
"Finally an anti-Semitic film of the kind we could only wish for," wrote Joseph Goebbels in his diary on Aug. 18, 1940. He had just seen the first screening of his pet project "Jud Süss" with Ferdinand Marian playing the lead role in the now infamous Nazi propaganda film. The Austrian actor's Faustian pact with the Hitler regime is the focus of a new star-studded German film "Jud Süss -- Rise and Fall" which had its world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival on Thursday night.
The original film "Jud Süss" was commissioned by the Nazi Propaganda Minister Goebbels in 1939 just a few months into the war. The Nazis were intent on producing a melodrama that would rival those of Hollywood. First and foremost, they wanted a popular historical drama rather than just a blatant propaganda film. The relatively unknown Marian had caught the attention of Goebbels with his stage performance of Iago in "Othello" and, though the actor was reluctant at first, the minister's methods of persuasion soon convinced him to take the part.
The film was based loosely on a 1925 book of the same name by the German-Jewish writer Lion Feuchtwanger, which explored the fate of Joseph Süss Oppenheimer, the Jewish financial adviser to the Duke of Wurttemberg who was hanged in Stuttgart in 1738. But while Feuchtwanger's book and a subsequent English film starring Conrad Veidt (who went on to play Major Strasser in "Casablanca") emphasized the tragedy of Oppenheimer's fate, the Nazis' intentions were very different.
Their film is a parable of the alleged Jewish threat in Europe, with Jud Süss presented as a manipulator of the Duke's weaknesses, while various other Jewish characters, all played by character actor Werner Krauss, represent many grotesque anti-Semitic stereotypes. Once the Duke dies, Oppenheimer is arrested and is eventually executed for having sexual relations with a Christian woman, something that would have resonated in Nazi Germany five years after the 1935 Nuremberg Race Laws, which severely limited Jewish participation in society.
'He Didn't Use Jewish Clichés'
Marian was determined to make the central character of Jud Süss believable and sympathetic, explains Friedrich Knilli, author of the Marian biography "Ich War Jud Süss" (I was Jud Süss) from 2000. "What was special about Marian, and why he was so respected, is that he didn't use Jewish clichés but rather he played him as a person who has been disdained," he told SPIEGEL ONLINE.
The movie, which premiered at the Venice Film Festival in 1940, was a huge commercial hit across Europe, attracting an audience of over 20 million people and it made a star and, improbably, something of a heartthrob out of Marian. Yet as the war dragged on the film took on a different role in the Third Reich. The anti-Semitic elements gained much more prominence and its purpose became that of pure propaganda. SS leader Heinrich Himmler ordered the film to be compulsory viewing for all soldiers and guards in concentration camps. And it was often shown to non-Jewish populations in the Nazi-occupied territories.
The notoriety of the film became such that its director Viet Harlan was the only German filmmaker to be put on trial by the Allies after World War II. In the end he was acquitted due to a lack of evidence that he was directly responsibility for the mass murder that his film helped to spur on. "Jud Süss" was banned by the Americans in 1945 and even today it can only be shown in Germany for educational purposes. Sabine Hake, a cultural and film historian at the University of Texas and author of "German National Cinema," is skeptical about the need to ban the film. "If one wants to be a stable vibrant democracy that can withstand disagreement and a wide range of political views, I think banning films like that only makes them more attractive," she told SPIEGEL ONLINE.
A Tragedy of Self-Betrayal
And indeed, the film has continued to exert a fascination, with many documentaries and books written about it over the years. Now one of Germany's most talented directors, Oskar Roehler, has made a film that centers on Marian. Yet both Roehler and script writer Klaus Richter have chosen to make crucial changes to Marian's story to make it into a tragedy of self-betrayal -- changes which have raised quite a few eyebrows.
Perhaps the most controversial decision was to make Marian's wife Jewish. In reality his wife, Maria Byk, was not Jewish but had previously been married to German-Jewish director Julius Gellner and had a half-Jewish daughter, both of whom emigrated in the 1930s.
In the film she becomes Anna, played by Martina Gedeck of " The Lives of Others." A former actress who has hidden her Jewish roots, she is horrified by her husband's decision to play the role and after the first success at Venice urges him to leave for America. However, he is sucked in by the high society life and sexual conquests available to him, they become further estranged and eventually she is sent to a concentration camp. Knilli says that it was "absolutely wrong" to make her Jewish, and accuses Roehler of making the changes to increase his chances of getting an Oscar.
'You Can't Simply Falsify the Facts'
Knilli, who is emeritus professor of media studies at the Technical University of Berlin, also objects to the way the filmmakers present Marian's career as nose-diving and then show his eventual suicide upon hearing that his beloved Anna has been gassed at Auschwitz. In fact Marian went on to make several other films after "Jud Süss" and had recently been told that the Allies were going to allow him to act again when he died in a car crash in 1946.
"It is complete rubbish," Knilli says. "You can't simply falsify the facts in historical films. One has to stick to the truth a bit." Sitting in his office in his Berlin apartment surrounded by the fruits of 30 years of research into Marian, Knilli says that he suggested to Roehler that he "come by and have a look at all this collection some time, because there is a lot of material. But he didn't make any use of it."
The filmmakers, however, have been quick to defend their creative decisions. "Our film is a cinema feature film and not a documentary," says Markus Zimmer, one of the producers of the film. "It is a completely legitimate decision by filmmakers to tell a story in this way," he told SPIEGEL ONLINE. He says that the Anna character is "a quasi-fictional character, who represents the fates of the many Jewish people in the German film industry who were persecuted and who died in the Third Reich."
For Roehler, the purpose in telling Marian's story was to show "the human drama." "We wanted to ratchet certain things up a bit to make his moral conflicts clearer. We make movies and not documentaries, also because we want to depict human feelings," he told reporters on Thursday. "We are telling emotions. The inner truth."
A Myopic Debate
Film historian Hake argues that this spat about the film's historical accuracy is out of date in a world in which there are films about surf Nazis, Nazi zombies, even Nazi porn. "This debate about whether filmmakers take a responsible approach to representing the past runs so much behind the reality of Nazis as a global signifier and it is incredibly myopic and provincial," she says.
Yet if the filmmakers ditched inconvenient historical details to make a riveting drama, they seem to have failed. The pace drags, the film doesn't seem to be able to decide if it is a satire or a melodrama and ironically, Tobias Moretti, who plays Marian, an actor who strove to make his Jewish character sympathetic, does little to emotionally engage us. As he sleeps with countless other women and drinks incessantly, one is left wondering why Anna doesn't simply run off and leave him at the first opportunity.
- Part 1: New 'Jud Süss' Flops as Faustian Tragedy
- Part 2: Nazis as a Brand for German Cinema